Abstract

We present theoretical and numerical analysis of a plasmonic-dielectric hybrid system for symmetric and asymmetric coupling between silver cut-wire pairs and silicon grating waveguide with periodic grooves. The results show that both couplings can induce electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) analogous to the quantum optical phenomenon. The transmission spectrum shows a single transparency window for the symmetric coupling. The strong normal phase dispersion in the vicinity of this transparent window results in the slow light effect. However, the transmission spectrum appears an additional transparency window for asymmetry coupling due to the double EIT effect, which stems from an asymmetrically coupled resonance (ACR) between the dark and bright modes. More importantly, the excitation of ACR is further associated with remarkable improvement of the group index from less than 40 to more than 2500 corresponding to a high transparent efficiency by comparing with the symmetry coupling. This scheme provides an alternative way to develop the building block of systems for plasmonic sensing, all optical switching and slow light applications.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(7), 073903 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
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  7. C. L. Garrido-Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37-41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. G. Litvak and M. D. Tokman, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ensembles of classical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 095003 (2002).
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  9. M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
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  10. L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (9)

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13396–13401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, Y. Lu, Y. Lee, and B. S. Ham, “Studies of electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17736–17747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kekatpure, E. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. Brongersma, “Phase-Coupled Plasmon-Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (11)

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, Y. Fu, V. Fedotov, S. Prosvirnin, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, O. J. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, X. Zou, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and G. Guo, “Analog to multiple electromagnetically induced transparency in all-optical drop-filter systems,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks and J. Vuckovic, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. Zhang, “Optical magnetic response from parallel plate metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Photonics: transparency on an optical chip,” Nature 441(7094), 701–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, J. Joannopoulos, and L. Hau, “Ultralow-power all-optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, K. Hayasaka, and K. Kasai, “Conditional transfer of quantum correlation in the intensity of twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 062341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(7), 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. L. Garrido-Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Litvak and M. D. Tokman, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ensembles of classical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 095003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4611–4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Q.

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. Kekatpure, E. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. Brongersma, “Phase-Coupled Plasmon-Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(7), 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Photonics: transparency on an optical chip,” Nature 441(7094), 701–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

R. Kekatpure, E. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. Brongersma, “Phase-Coupled Plasmon-Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

R. Kekatpure, E. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. Brongersma, “Phase-Coupled Plasmon-Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Xiao, X. Zou, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and G. Guo, “Analog to multiple electromagnetically induced transparency in all-optical drop-filter systems,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, S. Y.

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N. Papasimakis, Y. Fu, V. Fedotov, S. Prosvirnin, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
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Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryce, I. M.

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhee, J. Y.

X. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13396–13401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, J. Joannopoulos, and L. Hau, “Ultralow-power all-optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X.

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suh, W.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, N. H.

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, O. J. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. G. Litvak and M. D. Tokman, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ensembles of classical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 095003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D.

N. Papasimakis, Y. Fu, V. Fedotov, S. Prosvirnin, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Un, I. W.

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(7), 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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E. Waks and J. Vuckovic, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153601 (2006).
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E. Waks and J. Vuckovic, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153601 (2006).
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Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. M.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, X. Zou, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and G. Guo, “Analog to multiple electromagnetically induced transparency in all-optical drop-filter systems,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, Y. Lu, Y. Lee, and B. S. Ham, “Studies of electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17736–17747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M. X.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. Zhang, “Optical magnetic response from parallel plate metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. Zhang, “Optical magnetic response from parallel plate metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, K. Hayasaka, and K. Kasai, “Conditional transfer of quantum correlation in the intensity of twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 062341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N.

N. Papasimakis, Y. Fu, V. Fedotov, S. Prosvirnin, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

X. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13396–13401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. N.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Xiao, X. Zou, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and G. Guo, “Analog to multiple electromagnetically induced transparency in all-optical drop-filter systems,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Su, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Chen, Z. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Plasmonic interferences and optical modulations in dark-bright-dark plasmon resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, Y. Fu, V. Fedotov, S. Prosvirnin, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, J. Joannopoulos, and L. Hau, “Ultralow-power all-optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, O. J. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Photonics: transparency on an optical chip,” Nature 441(7094), 701–702 (2006).
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Opt. Express (8)

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13396–13401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, Y. Lu, Y. Lee, and B. S. Ham, “Studies of electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17736–17747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, M. X. Xu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. Xiao, X. Zou, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and G. Guo, “Analog to multiple electromagnetically induced transparency in all-optical drop-filter systems,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, K. Hayasaka, and K. Kasai, “Conditional transfer of quantum correlation in the intensity of twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 062341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Three-dimensional and (b) two-dimensional views of the proposed plasmonic-dielectric system. The geometric parameters are H 1 = 120nm, H 2 = 90nm, L 1 = 100nm, L = 20nm, d = 400nm, and w = w 1 = 10nm. The vertical distance between the upper silver cut-wire pairs and the lower silicon grating is G = 100nm and the entire thickness of the surrounding dielectric slab is denoted by H. (c) The transmission and absorption spectra of a structure with periodic silver cut-wire pairs (top panel), a sole Si grating (middle panel), and an entire hybrid plasmonic-dielectric system (bottom panel). The insets show the illustration of the periodic silver cut-wire pairs and the Si grating, both of which are embedded in the surrounding dielectric slab, respectively. (d) The distribution of the logarithm of electric field and magnetic field at point A, B and C in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Transmission spectra, and (b) absorption spectra for the hybrid plasmonic-dielectric system for different separations. (c) The dispersion of the phase φ ( ω ) and (d) the group index for the EIT system shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Two-dimensional view of the plasmonic-dielectric system with breaking symmetry. The displacement with respect to the symmetry axis is defined as G1.(b) Transmission and absorption spectra for symmetry and asymmetry couplings, and (c) corresponding transmission phase changes for G1 = 0 nm and G1 = 20 nm, respectively. (d) The distribution of the logarithm of electric field and magnetic field at point D, E and F in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The group index change for different degree of asymmetry (blue curve) and its corresponding maximum transmission efficiency (green curve).

Equations (1)

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n g = c v g = c H τ g = c H d φ ( ω ) d ω

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