Abstract

We report our latest research results concerning the development of a platform for label-free biosensing based on overlayered Long Period Gratings (LPGs) working in transition mode. The main novelty of this work lies in a multilayer design that allows to decouple the problem of an efficient surface functionalization from that of the tuning in transition region of the cladding modes. An innovative solvent/nonsolvent strategy for the dip-coating technique was developed in order to deposit on the LPG multiple layers of transparent polymers. In particular, a primary coating of atactic polystyrene was used as high refractive index layer to tune the working point of the device in the so-called transition region. In this way, state-of-the-art-competitive sensitivity to surrounding medium refractive index changes was achieved. An extremely thin secondary functional layer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) was deposited onto the primary coating by means of an original identification of selective solvents. This approach allowed to obtain desired functional groups (carboxyls) on the surface of the device for a stable covalent attachment of bioreceptors and minimal perturbation of the optical design. Standard 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide / N-hydrosuccinimide (EDC / NHS) coupling chemistry was used to link streptavidin on the surface of the coated LPG. Highly sensitive real-time monitoring of multiple affinity assays between streptavidin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was performed by following the shift of the LPGs attenuation bands.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
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  4. M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of coatings on long-period fiber gratings: tunnel effect analogy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(8), 655–665 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Ennis, H. Betz, and H. Ade, “Direct spincasting of polystyrene thin films onto poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 44(22), 3234–3244 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. E. Fischer, “Amine coupling through EDC/NHS: a practical approach,” Methods Mol. Biol. 627, 55–73 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of coatings on long-period fiber gratings: tunnel effect analogy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(8), 655–665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ennis, H. Betz, and H. Ade, “Direct spincasting of polystyrene thin films onto poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 44(22), 3234–3244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achaerandio, M.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

D. Ennis, H. Betz, and H. Ade, “Direct spincasting of polystyrene thin films onto poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 44(22), 3234–3244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ajji, A.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akamine, A.

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akashi, A.

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambrosio, L.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Areva, S.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F.

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arregui, F. J.

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of coatings on long-period fiber gratings: tunnel effect analogy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(8), 655–665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, W. E.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, H.

D. Ennis, H. Betz, and H. Ade, “Direct spincasting of polystyrene thin films onto poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 44(22), 3234–3244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boismenu, F.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buosciolo, A.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campopiano, S.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contessa, L.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, K. L.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corres, J. M.

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cutolo, A.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, E.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Villar, I.

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of coatings on long-period fiber gratings: tunnel effect analogy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(8), 655–665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, C.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dufva, M.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ennis, D.

D. Ennis, H. Betz, and H. Ade, “Direct spincasting of polystyrene thin films onto poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 44(22), 3234–3244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falciai, R.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M. J. E.

M. J. E. Fischer, “Amine coupling through EDC/NHS: a practical approach,” Methods Mol. Biol. 627, 55–73 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foglia Manzillo, P.

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghalmi, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, J. M.

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, N.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J.

Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hine, A.

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Høiby, P. E.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hotchkiss, J. H.

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M.

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keener, M. T.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kvasnicka, P.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. C.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malachovska, V.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzillo, P. F.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matias, I. R.

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 394–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of coatings on long-period fiber gratings: tunnel effect analogy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(8), 655–665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, “Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matías, I.

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuya, S.

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuya, Y.

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mignani, A. G.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickrell, G. R.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piliarik, M.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2536–2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajarajan, M.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rees, N. D.

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomäki, M.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, P.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibru, H.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorobogatiy, M.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spacková, B.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoeffler, K.

K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, A. Ajji, N. Guo, F. Boismenu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication of all-polymeric photonic bandgap Bragg fibers using rolling of coextruded PS/PMMA multilayer films,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 50(6), 1122–1127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R.

Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Themistos, C.

B. Spačková, M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnicka, C. Themistos, M. Rajarajan, and J. Homola, “Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 199–203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tokachichu, D. R.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unemori, M.

M. Unemori, Y. Matsuya, S. Matsuya, A. Akashi, and A. Akamine, “Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride,” Biomaterials 24(8), 1381–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Cott, K.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vannini, A.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viitala, R.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Pictorial description of mode coupling in LPGs and spectral dependence on SRI (not to scale): 1) spectrum of incoming white light; 2) spectrum of transmitted light at the output of the bare LPG, also showing the shift of the attenuation bands for increasing SRI; 3) LPG structure; (b) schematic of the experimental set-up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Effect of the overlays deposition on the fourth order cladding mode attenuation band of grating A; b) optical microscopy images of a double-layer coated optical fiber. Clock wise: bare, PS (pink), transition from PS to PMMA-co-MA on PS, central zone with the double-layer of PMMA-co-MA on PS (violet).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) SRI characterization in terms of attenuation bands minima position for the fourth and fifth cladding modes and for the single- and double-layer coated grating A; b) SRI sensitivity (| ∂λres/∂SRI|) of the fourth and fifth cladding modes extrapolated from data reported in a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)LPG sensorgram reporting the wavelength shift of 4th order cladding mode attenuation band during the immobilization procedure and following affinity-assay; (b) sketch of coated LPG interface with different biological agents used in the experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) are 2D and 3D, respectively, height images of PMMA-co-MA coated optical fiber without covalently attached SA; (c) and (d) are 2D and 3D, respectively, height images of the coated fiber after covalent immobilization of SA; (e) and (f) are 2D and 3D, respectively, height images of immobilized protein on the coated fiber on a smaller area of 1x1 μm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Effect of the overlays deposition on the fifth order cladding mode attenuation band of grating B in air, position of the attenuation band related to the sixth order cladding mode when the grating is immersed in water (violet) and band shift due to water absorption (blue); b) Kinetic of the attenuation band of the sixth order cladding mode as a consequence of water-polymer interaction in different consecutive immersions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LPG sensorgram reporting the wavelength shift of 6th order cladding mode attenuation band during multiple affinity-assays.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Salient data extracted from the biomolecular experiment

Tables Icon

Table 2 Salient data extracted from the optimized biomolecular experiment

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