Abstract

We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a frequency comb over long optical fiber link. The technique implements an electronic compensation loop to cancel out the phase fluctuations that is introduced by the fiber. We utilized this technique to transfer a stable microwave frequency through a 20 km urban fiber link and an 80 km open air fiber link respectively. For the 20 km urban fiber link, the active compensation system reduced the phase fluctuation from 75 mrad (118 ps) to 4 mrad (6.3 ps) in 48 hours, and the frequency stability was improved by three orders of magnitude. For the 80 km open air fiber link, the active compensation system reduced the rms phase fluctuation from 580 mrad (914 ps) to 10 mrad (16 ps) in 24 hours, and the frequency stability was improved by two orders of magnitude.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. Levine, “A review of time and frequency transfer methods,” Metrologia 45(6), 162–174 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Kirchner, “Two-way Time Transfer via Communication Satellites,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 983–990 (1991).
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  3. W. Lewandowski, J. Azoubib, and W. J. Klepczynski, “GPS: Primary tool for time transfer,” Proc. IEEE 87(1), 163–172 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12134–12144 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. W. Holman, Distribution of an Ultrastable Frequency Reference Using Optical Frequency Combs (Ph. D. Thesis of University of Colorado, USA, 2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

2010

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Levine, “A review of time and frequency transfer methods,” Metrologia 45(6), 162–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12134–12144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Lewandowski, J. Azoubib, and W. J. Klepczynski, “GPS: Primary tool for time transfer,” Proc. IEEE 87(1), 163–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Kirchner, “Two-way Time Transfer via Communication Satellites,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 983–990 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azoubib, J.

W. Lewandowski, J. Azoubib, and W. J. Klepczynski, “GPS: Primary tool for time transfer,” Proc. IEEE 87(1), 163–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calonico, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12134–12144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crane, S.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujieda, M.

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hlavac, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L. W.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosokawa, M.

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, D.

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12134–12144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12134–12144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
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Kartner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
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Kärtner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kefelian, F.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, D.

D. Kirchner, “Two-way Time Transfer via Communication Satellites,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 983–990 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klepczynski, W. J.

W. Lewandowski, J. Azoubib, and W. J. Klepczynski, “GPS: Primary tool for time transfer,” Proc. IEEE 87(1), 163–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemonde, P.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenihan, A. S.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levine, J.

J. Levine, “A review of time and frequency transfer methods,” Metrologia 45(6), 162–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewandowski, W.

W. Lewandowski, J. Azoubib, and W. J. Klepczynski, “GPS: Primary tool for time transfer,” Proc. IEEE 87(1), 163–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loehl, F.

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorini, L.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, A. N.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, B. S.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagano, S.

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narbonneau, F.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. L.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petit, G.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Runser, R. J.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kefelian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlarb, H.

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinkin, O. V.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terra, O.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tudury, G. E.

A. S. Lenihan, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, G. E. Tudury, R. J. Runser, A. Goldman, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “Nonlinear timing jitter in an installed fiber network with balanced dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1558–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhrich, P.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, F.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. A.

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
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D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
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S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
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K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
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J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

D. Hou, P. Li, P. Xi, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Timing jitter reduction over 20-km urban fiber by compensating harmonic phase difference of locked femtosecond comb,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(10), 993–995 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 x 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, “Precise frequency transfer through a fiber network by use of 1.5-microm mode-locked sources,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1554–1556 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
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S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).

Other

K. W. Holman, Distribution of an Ultrastable Frequency Reference Using Optical Frequency Combs (Ph. D. Thesis of University of Colorado, USA, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of phase fluctuations compensation over the 20 km urban fiber link. DDS, Direct Digital Synthesis. PZT, Piezoelectric Transducer; PD, photodiode; BS, beam splitter; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BPF, band-pass filter; RF Amp, radio frequency amplifier; LF Amp, low frequency amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of phase fluctuations compensation and measurements over the 80 km fiber link. OC: optical circulator; BF: back-reflector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the phase fluctuations compensation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase fluctuations for frequency distribution. (a) Through 20 km urban fiber link. (b) Through 80 km open air fiber link

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency stabilities of the distribution in open and closed loop.

Equations (3)

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φ r e m o t e ( t ) = φ r e f + φ c ( t ) + φ 0 + φ f ( t ) ,
φ r e t u r n e d ( t ) = φ r e f + φ c ( t ) + φ 0 + 2 φ f ( t ) ,
φ c ( t ) = φ f ( t ) .

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