Abstract

Two-center interference for heteronuclear diatomic molecules (HeDM) is investigated. The minimum in the high-order harmonic spectrum, as a consequence of the destructive interference, is shifted to lower harmonic orders compared with that in a homonuclear case. This phenomenon is explained by performing phase analysis. It is found that, for an HeDM, the high harmonic spectrum contains information not only on the internuclear separation but also on the properties of the two separate centers, which implies the potential application of estimating the asymmetry of molecules and judging the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). Moreover, the possibility to monitor the evolution of HOMO itself in molecular dynamics is also promised.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and B. B. Augstein, “Molecular high-order harmonic generation with more than one active orbital: quantum interference effects,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Etches, and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra at different orientation angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, and B. Hu, “Strong-field approximation for diatomic molecules: comparison between the length gauge and the vlocity gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B 39, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. L. Kamta, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Asymmetry in the harmonic generation from nonsymmetric molecules,” J. Phys. B 38, L339–L346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Kamta, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: nuclear interferences in H+2,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435, 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augstein, B. B.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and B. B. Augstein, “Molecular high-order harmonic generation with more than one active orbital: quantum interference effects,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Kamta, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Asymmetry in the harmonic generation from nonsymmetric molecules,” J. Phys. B 38, L339–L346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Kamta, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: nuclear interferences in H+2,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlasso, R.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brugnera, L.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
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W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
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P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
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A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
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Y. J. Chen, and B. Hu, “Strong-field approximation for diatomic molecules: comparison between the length gauge and the vlocity gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033408 (2009).
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Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra at different orientation angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
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G. L. Kamta, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Asymmetry in the harmonic generation from nonsymmetric molecules,” J. Phys. B 38, L339–L346 (2005).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diestler, D. J.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Etches, and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B 43, 155602 (2010).
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B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
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C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and B. B. Augstein, “Molecular high-order harmonic generation with more than one active orbital: quantum interference effects,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043409 (2010).
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R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
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Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Gühr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
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Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Hay, N.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
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Heesel, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

Y. J. Chen, and B. Hu, “Strong-field approximation for diatomic molecules: comparison between the length gauge and the vlocity gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra at different orientation angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajumba, N.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamta, G. L.

G. L. Kamta, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: nuclear interferences in H+2,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
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G. L. Kamta, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Asymmetry in the harmonic generation from nonsymmetric molecules,” J. Phys. B 38, L339–L346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
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T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053002 (2007).
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T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435, 470–474 (2005).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, P.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B 39, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra at different orientation angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lock, R.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lock, R. M.

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, L. B.

A. Etches, and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, J.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, B. K.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, S.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435, 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Procino, I.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435, 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafir, D.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, T.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springate, E.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolow, A.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J.W. G.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, R.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcu, I. C. E.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. G.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field,” Opt. Express 18, 3174–3180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nat. Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, M. Lein, C. C. Chirilă, R. Torres, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, J.W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamic two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from molecules with attosecond nuclear motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, R. Berlasso, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S457–S466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, K.-J.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, D. J. Diestler, J. Manz, and K.-J. Yuan, “Quantum simulation of high-order harmonic spectra of the hydrogen atom,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of highorder harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys. 366, 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

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Nature

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic for the process of recombination. (X,Y,Z) is the molecule frame, and (x,y,z) is the laboratory frame. θ is defined as the angle between the directions of the intrinsic dipole moment of CO and the electric field. |R⃗C| and |R⃗O| are 0.65 Å and 0.48 Å respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sectional view of (a)ΨC, (b)ΨCO, (c)ΨO. The black dots represent the nuclear positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Harmonic spectra of H2 obtained using the Lewenstein model with the modified effective momentum p⃗k. 780nm laser is used with intensity I=5×1014 W/cm2 and a duration of 26 fs. Internuclear distance of H2 is 1.4 a.u. and the alignment angle is (a) 0°, and (b) 30° respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Harmonic spectrum of CO at θ=0°, with laser intensity I=3×1014 W/cm2, wavelength λ=1300 nm and a duration of 30 fs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase analysis for the recombination of CO.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of HHG from two probable HOMO of CO, a real one (blue) and an artificial one with orbital combination described in the text (red). The thick curves represent the smoothed harmonic spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The HHG and phase analysis for CO oriented at θ=180°. The applied laser parameters and the representations of each curve are the same as in Fig. 4 and Fig 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase analysis for spatial phase difference. The boundaries of the red and blue colors represent where the phase differences reach π (or −π). All the phases are shifted in the interval from −1 to 1 (in unit of π).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase analysis for total phase difference. The boundaries of the red and blue colors represent where the phase differences reach π (or −π). All the phases are shifted in the interval from −1 to 1 (in unit of π).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Harmonic spectra at all orientation angles in arbitrary unit. I=6×1014 W/cm2, the other parameters are the same as in Fig. 4.

Equations (20)

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Ψ C O ( r ) = μ c μ ψ μ ( r R μ ) = Ψ C ( r R C ) + Ψ O ( r R O ) ,
Ψ C ( r R C ) = u c u ψ u ( r R C ) ,
Ψ O ( r R O ) = v c v ψ v ( r R O ) ,
x ( t ) = i t d t [ π ɛ + i ( t t ) / 2 ] 3 / 2 × d rec [ p st ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] d ion [ p st ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] × exp [ i S st ( t , t ) ] E ( t ) + c . c ..
p st ( t , t ) = 1 t t t t A ( t ) d t ,
S st ( t , t ) = ( t t ) I p 1 2 p st 2 ( t , t ) ( t t ) + 1 2 t t A 2 ( t ) d t ,
S q | a ( t ) exp ( iq ω L t ) | 2 ,
d CO ( p ) = Ψ CO ( r ) | r | e i p r .
d CO ( p ) = Ψ C ( r R C ) | r | e i p r + Ψ O ( r R O ) | r | e i p r
= Ψ C ( r 1 ) | r 1 + R C | e i p r 1 e i p R C + Ψ O ( r 2 ) | r 2 + R O | e i p r 2 e i p R O .
d CO ( p ) = d C ( p ) e i p R C + d O ( p ) e i p R O
= | d C ( p ) | e i ϕ C i p R C e ^ c + | d O ( p ) | e i ϕ O i p R O e ^ o ,
Δ ϕ = [ ϕ C + ( p R C ) ] [ ϕ O + ( p R O ) ]
= ( ϕ C ϕ O ) + pR cos θ ,
d HoDM ( p ) = 2 d atom ( p ) cos ( p R / 2 ) ,
R | cos θ | = ( 2 m + 1 ) λ / 2 , m = 0 , 1 ,
λ = h / p ,
Ψ CO ( r ) = 3 3 ψ C , 2 s ( r R C ) + 3 3 ψ C , 2 pz ( r R C ) 3 3 ψ O , 2 pz ( r R O ) .
S smooth ( ω ) = S ( ω ˜ ) exp ( ( ω ˜ ω ) 2 / σ 2 ) d ω ˜ ,
Δ ϕ rev = ( ϕ C + ϕ O ) + pR cos ( π θ ) = Δ ϕ .

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