Abstract

We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef]

“Results of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61, 1–353 (2009).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D16), D16203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Redelsperger, C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, and J. Polcher, "African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis: An international research project and field campaign,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87(12), 1739–1746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Tatarov and N. Sugimoto, “Estimation of quartz concentration in the tropospheric mineral aerosols using combined Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3407–3409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2571–2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Reid and H. B. Maring, “Foreword to special section on the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8585 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Wurzler, T. G. Reisin, and Z. Levin, “Modification of mineral dust particles by cloud processing and subsequent effects on drop size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4501–4512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38(12), 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. Levin, E. Ganor, and V. Gladstein, “The effects of desert particles coated with sulfate on rain formation in the eastern Mediterranean,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(9), 1511–1523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al Mandoos, A.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Al Mangoosh, A.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, A.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D16), D16203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38(12), 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

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D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
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O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
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P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
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P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
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D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
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Gallavardin, S. J.

D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
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Harrison, M.

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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Harrison, M. A.

C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haustein, K.

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, J.

D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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Haywood, J. M.

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Highwood, E.

D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
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P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
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D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
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Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
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P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
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D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
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I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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Miller, S. D.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milton, S.

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mironova, I.

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moehler, O.

D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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Möhler, O.

O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
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P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
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Mona, L.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D16), D16203 (2006).
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Müller, D.

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38(12), 2346–2357 (1999).
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Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. M.

D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myhre, G.

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nava, S.

C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nessler, R.

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, T.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. M.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, S.

C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
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I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
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P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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J.-L. Redelsperger, C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, and J. Polcher, "African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis: An international research project and field campaign,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87(12), 1739–1746 (2006).
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P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
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J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
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P. J. DeMott, K. Sassen, M. R. Poellet, D. Baumgardner, D. C. Rogers, S. D. Brooks, A. J. Prenni, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1732 (2003).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
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I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
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T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
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Shin, D. H.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
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Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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Shin, S. K.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
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J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

B. Tatarov and N. Sugimoto, “Estimation of quartz concentration in the tropospheric mineral aerosols using combined Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3407–3409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Summa, D.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tatarov, B.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

B. Tatarov and N. Sugimoto, “Estimation of quartz concentration in the tropospheric mineral aerosols using combined Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3407–3409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorncroft, C. D.

J.-L. Redelsperger, C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, and J. Polcher, "African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis: An international research project and field campaign,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87(12), 1739–1746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S.-C.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, T.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tulet, P.

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. L.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walter, S.

O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38(12), 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, D. L.

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2571–2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegner, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurzler, S.

S. Wurzler, T. G. Reisin, and Z. Levin, “Modification of mineral dust particles by cloud processing and subsequent effects on drop size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4501–4512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.-C.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yumimoto, K.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, T. Nishizawa, Y. Hara, C. Xie, I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, Z. Wang, and S.-C. Yoon, “Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530A, 71530A-13 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38(12), 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2571–2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. R. Field, O. Möhler, P. Connolly, M. Krämer, R. Cotton, A. J. Heymsfield, H. Saathoff, and M. Schnaiter, “Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(10), 2991–3006 (2006).
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O. Möhler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, R. Wagner, J. Schneider, S. Walter, V. Ebert, and S. Wagner, “The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols,” Environ. Res. Lett. 3(2), 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, S. J. Gallavardin, O. Moehler, S. Benz, H. Saathoff, and D. M. Murphy, “Deactivation of ice nuclei due to atmospherically relevant surface coating,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(4), 044013 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, B. Tatarov, Y. M. Noh, D. H. Shin, S. K. Shin, K. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and N. Sugimoto, “Mineral Quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength/aerosol/Raman-quartz lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(20), L20810 (2010), doi:.
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S. Wurzler, T. G. Reisin, and Z. Levin, “Modification of mineral dust particles by cloud processing and subsequent effects on drop size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4501–4512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, "Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D4), D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, J. Fruntke, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Evolution of the ice phase in tropical altocumulus: SAMUM lidar observations over Cape Verde,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, R. Engelmann, D. Müller, C. Pérez, and K. Haustein, “Saharan dust and heterogeneous ice formation: Eleven years of cloud observations at a central European EARLINET site,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D16), D16203 (2006).
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D. Tanré, J. Haywood, J. Pelon, J.-F. Léon, B. Chatenet, P. Formenti, P. Francis, P. Goloub, E. Highwood, and G. Myhre, “Measurements and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18), 8574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, S. J. Piketh, A. L. Walker, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, D. L. Westphal, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R. A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. Al Mandoos, A. Al Mangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, E. A. Reid, and S.-C. Tsay, “An overview of UAE flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, J. Pelon, P. Formenti, N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, P. Chazette, C. Chou, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. J. Highwood, B. Johnson, M. Mallet, B. Marticorena, J. Marsham, S. Milton, G. Myhre, S. R. Osborne, D. J. Parker, J.-L. Rajot, M. Schulz, A. Slingo, D. Tanré, and P. Tulet, “Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period-0,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C17 (2008).
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C. L. McConnell, E. J. Highwood, H. Coe, P. Formenti, B. Anderson, S. Osborne, S. Nava, K. Desboeufs, G. Chen, and M. A. Harrison, “Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: Results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14S05 (2008).
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I. Mattis, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. Preißler, P. Seifert, and M. Tesche, "Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D20), D20202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidar in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. 115, 21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the optical layout on the optical table of the GIST multiwavelength Raman lidar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Vertical profiles of the range corrected lidar signals at 361 nm (blue), 546 (green), (b) 532 nm (green), and (c) the line volume depolarization ratio measured from 15:00 to 18:00 UTC (from 00:00 to 03:00 LST) on 21 March 2010.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Vertical profiles of the backscatter coefficient of mineral quartz measured at 361 nm (blue) and 546 nm (green) and the Raman mineral-quartz-related Ångström exponent (black), and (b) vertical profiles of the mineral quartz concentration derived from the profiles in (a). Measruement time was the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-height cross sections of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm (top panel) and the linear volume depolarization ratio (bottom panel) measured from 12:00 to 20:00 UTC on 21 March 2010.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P R ( r , λ L , λ R ) = P L B R F R ( r ) r 2 β R ( r , λ L , λ R ) × exp ( 0 r [ α p ( z , λ L ) + α m ( z , λ L ) + α p ( z , λ R ) + α m ( z , λ R ) ] d z ) .
β R ( r , λ L , λ R ) = ξ ( r ) P R ( r , λ L , λ R ) P m ( r , λ L ) β m ( r , λ L ) η ( r , λ L , λ R ) .
åQ ( r , λ R 1 , λ R 2 ) = log β R ( r , λ L 1 , λ R 1 ) β R ( r , λ L 2 , λ R 2 ) log λ R 1 λ R 2 .
β R ( r , λ L , λ R ) = N q ( r ) d σ ( λ L , λ R , π ) d Ω .

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