Abstract

The majority of the applications of ultrashort laser pulses require a control of its spectral bandwidth. In this paper we show the capability of volume phase holographic gratings recorded in photopolymerizable glasses for spectral pulse reshaping of ultrashort laser pulses originated in an Amplified Ti: Sapphire laser system and its second harmonic. Gratings with high laser induce damage threshold (LIDT) allowing wide spectral bandwidth operability satisfy these demands. We have performed LIDT testing in the photopolymerizable glass showing that the sample remains unaltered after more than 10 million pulses with 0,75 TW/cm2 at 1 KHz repetition rate. Furthermore, it has been developed a theoretical model, as an extension of the Kogelnik’s theory, providing key gratings design for bandwidth operability. The main features of the diffracted beams are in agreement with the model, showing that non-linear effects are negligible in this material up to the fluence threshold for laser induced damage. The high versatility of the grating design along with the excellent LIDT indicates that this material is a promising candidate for ultrashort laser pulses manipulations.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and I. Smith, “Development of a mirror backed volume phase grating with potential for large aperture and high damage threshold,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 403–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Bezuhanov, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, M. G. Schätzel, and H. Walther, “Vortices in femtosecond laser fields,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1942–1944 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt. 38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1978 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Andreeva, O. V.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atencia, J.

Backus, S.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bañares, L.

Bespalov, V. G.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bezuhanov, K.

Boyd, R. D.

Britten, J. A.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. L.

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. P. Hernández-Garay, J. G. Izquierdo, R. Weigand, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, P. Vaveliuk, and L. Bañares, “Generation of femtosecond paraxial beams with arbitrary spatial distribution,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 652–654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Calvo and P. Cheben, “Photopolymerizable sol–gel nanocomposites for holographic recording,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(2), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “Polarization and phase-shift properties of high spatial frequency holographic gratings in a photopolymerizable glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 485–487 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. P. Hernández-Garay, J. G. Izquierdo, R. Weigand, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, P. Vaveliuk, and L. Bañares, “Generation of femtosecond paraxial beams with arbitrary spatial distribution,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 652–654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “Polarization and phase-shift properties of high spatial frequency holographic gratings in a photopolymerizable glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 485–487 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Calvo and P. Cheben, “Photopolymerizable sol–gel nanocomposites for holographic recording,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(2), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chow, R.

Collados, M. V.

Decker, D.

del Monte, F.

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dreischuh, A.

Efimov, O. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Feit, H. T. Nguyen, R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, and L. Li, “Design of high-efficiency dielectric reflection gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(5), 1124–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Glebova, L. N.

Gorodetskiî, A. A.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernández-Garay, M. P.

Izquierdo, J. G.

Kapteyn, H.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Kushnarenko, A. P.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, L.

Loomis, G. E.

Lukomskiî, G. V.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Matos, O.

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. P. Hernández-Garay, J. G. Izquierdo, R. Weigand, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, P. Vaveliuk, and L. Bañares, “Generation of femtosecond paraxial beams with arbitrary spatial distribution,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 652–654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “Polarization and phase-shift properties of high spatial frequency holographic gratings in a photopolymerizable glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 485–487 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mourou, G.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

Paramonov, A. A.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

Perry, M. D.

Quintanilla, M.

Rambo, P.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and I. Smith, “Development of a mirror backed volume phase grating with potential for large aperture and high damage threshold,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 403–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

Rodrigo, J. A.

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. P. Hernández-Garay, J. G. Izquierdo, R. Weigand, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, P. Vaveliuk, and L. Bañares, “Generation of femtosecond paraxial beams with arbitrary spatial distribution,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 652–654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “Polarization and phase-shift properties of high spatial frequency holographic gratings in a photopolymerizable glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 485–487 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, M. G.

Schwarz, J.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and I. Smith, “Development of a mirror backed volume phase grating with potential for large aperture and high damage threshold,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 403–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, C.

Shore, B. W.

Shults, E.

Smirnov, V. I.

Smith, I.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and I. Smith, “Development of a mirror backed volume phase grating with potential for large aperture and high damage threshold,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 403–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasil’ev, V. N.

O. V. Andreeva, V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Vasil’ev, A. A. Gorodetskiî, A. P. Kushnarenko, G. V. Lukomskiî, and A. A. Paramonov, “Investigation of the spectral selectivity of volume holograms with femtosecond pulsed radiation,” Opt. Spect. 96(2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaveliuk, P.

Villamarín, A.

Walther, H.

Weigand, R.

Xiong, H.

Young, L.

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. del Monte, O. Martínez-Matos, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, “A Volume Holographic Sol-Gel Material with Large Enhancement of Dynamic Range by Incorporation of High Refractive Index Species,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 2014–2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Martínez-Matos, M. L. Calvo, J. A. Rodrigo, P. Cheben, and F. del Monte, “Diffusion study in tailored gratings recorded in photopolymer glass with high refractive index species,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 1411151–1411153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. L. Calvo and P. Cheben, “Photopolymerizable sol–gel nanocomposites for holographic recording,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(2), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum conservation of the incoming pulse: (a) Normalized spectral intensity of the fundamental emission (black line) and the diffracted pulse (dotted curve) of the ATLS system impinging Grating 1; (b) Normalized spectral intensity of the SH emission of the ATLS system (black line) and the diffracted intensity originated by Grating 2 (dotted curve). Fitting for both spectra (red lines) has been performed using Eq. (8). Grating parameters are displayed on Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular selectivity curves corresponding to Grating 1 (a) and 2 (b) for illumination with the fundamental emission of the ATLS system and its second harmonic, respectively. Red lines are the fitting using Eq. (9) and parameters on Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized spectral intensity of the fundamental emission (black line) and the diffracted pulses (dotted lines) of the ATLS system impinging Grating 3 at different incident angles, (θi = 51.62°, λi = 784.0 nm), (θi = 52.31°, λi = 791.3 nm) and (θi = 53.48°, λi = 803.7 nm); (b) Normalized spectral intensity of the SH emission of the ATLS system (black line) and the diffracted beams (dotted lines) by Grating 4 at different incident angles (θi = 32.14°, λi = 399.0 nm), (θi = 32.35°, λi = 401.3 nm), (θi = 32.56°, λi = 403.6 nm). The color lines are the theoretical fits using Eq. (8) and the grating parameters are displayed on Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular selectivity curves corresponding to Grating 3 (a) and 4 (b) for illumination with the fundamental emission of the ATLS system and its second harmonic, respectively. Red lines are the fitting using Eq. (9) and parameters on Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical setup for laser induced damage threshold procedure. DF is a variable neutral density filter to provide energy control, (L) is a fused silica plano-convex lens with f = 100 cm and Φ = 1 inch, d is the distance between the lens and the grating (60 cm). The measurements were carried out with a two-channel photodetector to collect the total transmitted (TP) and diffracted (DP) power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the Diffraction Efficiency on time exposition changing the incidence energy for each VPHG.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Photograph of the laser induced damage in the photopolymerizable glass. (b) A section of enlarged image of the damaged area with an optical microscope (10x) enhancing the details of the formation of a dark spot and the heat expansion.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Gratings parameters

Equations (10)

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Q = 2 π λ c T n 0 Λ 2 ,
ϑ ( θ i , λ ) = 2 π sin θ ( θ i , λ ) Λ π λ n 0 ( λ ) Λ 2 .
η ( θ i , λ ) = sin 2 [ ν ( θ i , λ ) 2 + ξ ( θ i , λ ) 2 ] 1 + ξ ( θ i , λ ) 2 ν ( θ i , λ ) 2 ,
ν ( θ i , λ ) = π Δ n T λ cos θ ( θ i , λ ) ,
ξ ( θ i , λ ) = ϑ ( θ i , λ ) T 2 cos θ ( θ i , λ ) ,
Δ λ G = λ c λ m = 3 2 Λ T ( 2 n ( λ c ) Λ ) 2 λ c 2 .
Δ λ G 2 3 π λ c Q ,
I D ( θ i , λ ) = g ( λ ) η ( θ i , λ ) ,
η T ( θ i ) = 0 g ( λ ) η ( θ i , λ ) d λ 0 g ( λ ) d λ .
η [ θ i ( λ i ) ] = b ​   g ( λ i ) 0 g ( λ ) d λ .

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