Abstract

We demonstrate the actuation of a double beam opto-mechanical cavity with a sinusoidally varying optical input power. We observe the driven mechanical motion with only 200 nW coupled to the optical cavity mode. We also investigate the pump power dependence of the radio-frequency response for both the driving power and the probe power. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the amplitude of the mechanical motion on mechanical cavity quality factor.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Van Thourhout, and J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photonics 4, 211-217 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321, 1172-1176 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity opto-mechanics," Opt. Express 15, 17172-17205 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Altug, and J. Vučković, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Van Thourhout, and J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photonics 4, 211-217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321, 1172-1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity opto-mechanics," Opt. Express 15, 17172-17205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Altug, and J. Vučković, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alegre, T. P. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

H. Altug, and J. Vučković, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anetsberger, G.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vlaminck, I.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deotare, P. B.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fushman, I.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gondarenko, A.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanescu, M.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321, 1172-1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity opto-mechanics," Opt. Express 15, 17172-17205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuramochi, E.

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagae, L.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, C. P.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perahia, R.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W. H. P.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M.

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M. L.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan, Q.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rivière, R.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

D. Van Thourhout, and J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photonics 4, 211-217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rokhsari, H.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, E. J.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoltz, N.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, H. X.

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniyama, H.

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321, 1172-1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity opto-mechanics," Opt. Express 15, 17172-17205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout, and J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photonics 4, 211-217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Altug, and J. Vučković, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiederhecker, G. S.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winger, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, "Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, "Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Altug, and J. Vučković, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 510-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, "Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided light-waves," Nat. Photonics 3, 464-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, "Actuation of micro-optomechanical systems via cavity-enhanced optical dipole forces," Nat. Photonics 1, 416-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout, and J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photonics 4, 211-217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator," Nat. Phys. 4, 415-419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "Optomechanical crystals," Nature 462, 78-82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480-484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, "Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot," Nature 450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, "Theoretical investigation of the transverse optical force between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a substrate," Opt. Express 17, 1806-1816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-Q enhancement of attractive and repulsive optical forces between coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Express 13, 8286-8295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity opto-mechanics," Opt. Express 15, 17172-17205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Lončar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321, 1172-1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated cavity. The inset shows the entire structure with input and output grating couplers. The input polarization (|H〉) and output polarization (|V〉) are also shown. The Ey field of the (b) TE1,+ and (c) TE2,+ optical modes. (d) The first order common in-plane mechanical mode, and (e) the first order differential in-plane mechanical modes are plotted with the color map assigned to the in-plane (y) motion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The optical setup used to probe the optomechanical cavity. (b) Spectrum of the cavity observed in transmission using a broadband LED. The first and second order bonded (+) and anti-bonded (−) modes are labeled. The inset shows a laser scan of the TE1,+ cavity mode for excitation, with a fit to a Lorentzian lineshape having Q ≈ 15,000.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The RF spectrum of the mechanical modes under study in (a) ambient atmosphere, and in (b) vacuum. (c) The time averaged spectrum of the differential mechanical mode from part (b) is shown (green points), observed as RF sidebands of the laser tuned to TE2,+. The non-averaged RF spectrum showing the sharp RF response when a modulated laser on TE1,+ is added is also plotted (blue line). The inset shows the same data zoomed in, to observe the thermal driven mechanical mode in the background. (d) The integrated power within the sharp RF response of the laser on TE2,+ [from (c)] with different RF modulation frequencies of the laser on TE1,+. The two dotted curves correspond to two different average input powers on the first order mode and fixed input power on the second order mode. A closer zoom of the mode shown in part (b) of the figure is shown as a reference at the bottom (blue).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The integrated intensity in the RF response collected from TE2,+ as a function of average input power on TE1,+ for different detunings of the RF modulation frequency from the mechanical resonance at a fixed probe power (2 μW) on TE2,+. (b) The integrated intensity in the RF response as a function of different probe powers on TE2,+, at two different fixed average pump powers on TE1,+. (c) The RF response as a function of input power on TE1,+ with different probe pump powers on TE2,+. (d) The integrated RF response as a function of average pump power on TE1,+. The two curves correspond to the response at ambient atmosphere and in vacuum, both with the same probe intensity on the TE2,+ mode (2 μW).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The theoretical average force on the mechanical mode for a fixed average input power of the modulated input, as a function of β.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The scaled force for fixed input energy, as a function of the duty cycle of the pump, and the optical detuning from the cavity.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g OM = d ω d x ,
1 L O M = 1 2 d A ( d q d α n ^ ) ( Δ ɛ | E | 2 Δ ( ɛ 1 ) | D | 2 ) d V ɛ | E | 2 .
c ˙ ( t ) = ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) c ( t ) + i α ( t ) ω 0 L OM c ( t ) + κ e 2 s ( t ) e i ω t
α ( t ) = α 0 sin ( Ω t )
c ˙ ( t ) = ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) c ( t ) + i ω 0 α 0 sin ( Ω t ) L O M c ( t ) + κ e 2 s ( t ) e i ω t
c h ( t ) = C 0 / u = C 0 exp ( ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) t i ω 0 α 0 cos ( Ω t ) L O M Ω ) = C 0 exp ( ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) t ) n ( i ) n J n ( β ) e i n Ω t
c p ( t ) = u κ e 2 s ( t ) e i ω t = e ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) t n i n J n ( β ) e i n Ω t κ e 2 s ( t ) e i ω t
c p ( t ) = e ( κ 2 + i ω 0 ) t n i n J n ( β ) e i n Ω t κ e 2 k a k e i k Ω t e i ω t d t = n , k i n J n ( β ) a k κ 2 i Δ + i ( n + k ) Ω e ( i Δ + i ( n + k ) Ω i ω 0 ) t i β cos ( Ω t )
| c p ( t ) | 2 L O M = 1 L O M n , k , m , l i n m J n ( β ) J m ( β ) a k a l * ( κ 2 i Δ + i ( n + k ) Ω ) ( κ 2 + i Δ i ( m + l ) Ω ) e i [ ( n + k ) ( m + l ) ] Ω t
| c p ( t ) | 2 L O M = 1 L O M k , l J 0 2 ( β ) a k a l * ( κ 2 i Δ + i k Ω ) ( κ 2 + i Δ i l Ω ) e i ( k l ) Ω t
s ( t ) = s 0 ( 1 2 + 1 4 e i Ω t + 1 4 e i Ω t )
F | s 0 | 2 κ e A 2 = J 0 2 ( β ) L O M k , l a k a l * ( κ 2 i Δ + i k Ω ) ( κ 2 + i Δ i l Ω ) e i ( k l ) Ω t
F | s 0 | 2 κ e A 2 = J 0 2 ( β ) 4 L O M cos ( Ω t ) [ 1 κ 2 4 + ( Δ Ω ) 2 + 1 κ 2 2 + ( Δ + Ω ) 2 Δ Ω ( κ 2 4 + Δ 2 ) ( κ 2 4 + ( Δ Ω ) 2 ) + Δ Ω ( κ 2 4 + Δ 2 ) ( κ 2 4 + ( Δ + Ω ) 2 ) ]
F | s 0 | 2 κ e A 2 = J 0 2 ( β ) 2 L O M [ 1 κ 2 4 + Ω 2 ] 1 2 L O M [ 1 κ 2 4 + Ω 2 ]
F | s 0 | 2 κ e = 8 3 = 1 2 L O M 1 κ 2 4 + Ω 2
F | s 0 | 2 κ e = β 2 L O M = [ 2 κ Δ Ω 2 ( κ 2 4 + Δ 2 ) ( κ 2 4 + ( Δ Ω ) 2 ) ( κ 2 4 + ( Δ + Ω ) 2 ) ]
s ( t ) = { A if | t | < T 1 0 otherwise
a k = { 2 A T 1 / T if k = 0 A sin ( k 2 π T T 1 ) k π otherwise

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