Abstract

Comprehensive angiography provides insight into the diagnosis of vascular-related diseases. However, complex microvascular networks of unstable in vivo organs such as the eye require micron-scale resolution in three dimensions and a high sampling rate to access a wide area as maintaining the high resolution. Here, we introduce dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography (OCA) as a label-free comprehensive ophthalmic angiography that satisfies theses requirements. In addition to high resolution and high imaging speed, high sensitivity to motion for detecting tiny blood flow of microvessels is achieved by detecting two time-delayed signals with scanning of two probing beams separated on a sample. We present in vivo three-dimensional imaging of the microvasculature of the posterior part of the human eye. The demonstrated results show that this technique may be used for comprehensive ophthalmic angiography to evaluate the vasculature of the posterior human eye and to diagnose variety of vascular diseases.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fibers and frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13032–13041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, K. Kawana, S. Makita, M. Sato, F. Okamoto, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, T. Yatagai, and T. Oshika, “Visualization of sub-retinal pigment epithelium morphologies of exudative macular diseases by high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 405–413 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Salo, H. El-Sallabi, and P. Vainikainen, “The Distribution of the Product of Independent Rayleigh Random Variables,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(2), 639–643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Costa, E. V. Navajas, M. E. Farah, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and I. U. Scott, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: angiographic characterization of the network vascular elements and a new treatment paradigm,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(5), 560–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, “Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36(1), 57–66 (2005).
[PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Ciardella, I. M. Donsoff, S. J. Huang, D. L. Costa, and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 49(1), 25–37 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. P. Davé and T. E. Milner, “Optical low-coherence reflectometer for differential phase measurement,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 227–229 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, “Differential phase contrast in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 622–624 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Michelson and B. Schmauss, “Two dimensional mapping of the perfusion of the retina and optic nerve head,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(12), 1126–1132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. Wolf, O. Arend, K. Schulte, T. H. Ittel, and M. Reim, “Quantification of retinal capillary density and flow velocity in patients with essential hypertension,” Hypertension 23(4), 464–467 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from volume data,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 8(3), 29–37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Fercher and J. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

D. Toussaint, T. Kuwabara, and D. G. Cogan, “Retinal vascular patterns. II. Human retinal vessels studied in three dimensions,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 65, 575–581 (1961).
[PubMed]

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M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fibers and frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13032–13041 (2008).
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D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, “Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36(1), 57–66 (2005).
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M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fibers and frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13032–13041 (2008).
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An, L.

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
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A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
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R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
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M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
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Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010), https://cogrt.bk.tsukuba.ac.jp/COG/locked/yasuno/papers/BiOS2010Proceedings/DATA/7554_57.PDF .
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E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
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Baumann, S. O.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010), https://cogrt.bk.tsukuba.ac.jp/COG/locked/yasuno/papers/BiOS2010Proceedings/DATA/7554_57.PDF .
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D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, “Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36(1), 57–66 (2005).
[PubMed]

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O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
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B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
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Bridgford, T.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
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Briers, J.

A. Fercher and J. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
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R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
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Calucci, D.

R. A. Costa, E. V. Navajas, M. E. Farah, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and I. U. Scott, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: angiographic characterization of the network vascular elements and a new treatment paradigm,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(5), 560–586 (2005).
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Cardillo, J. A.

R. A. Costa, E. V. Navajas, M. E. Farah, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and I. U. Scott, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: angiographic characterization of the network vascular elements and a new treatment paradigm,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(5), 560–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
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Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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Chen, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
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A. P. Ciardella, I. M. Donsoff, S. J. Huang, D. L. Costa, and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 49(1), 25–37 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cogan, D. G.

D. Toussaint, T. Kuwabara, and D. G. Cogan, “Retinal vascular patterns. II. Human retinal vessels studied in three dimensions,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 65, 575–581 (1961).
[PubMed]

Condit, R.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[PubMed]

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J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, D. L.

A. P. Ciardella, I. M. Donsoff, S. J. Huang, D. L. Costa, and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 49(1), 25–37 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. Costa, E. V. Navajas, M. E. Farah, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and I. U. Scott, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: angiographic characterization of the network vascular elements and a new treatment paradigm,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(5), 560–586 (2005).
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D. P. Davé and T. E. Milner, “Optical low-coherence reflectometer for differential phase measurement,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 227–229 (2000).
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Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donsoff, I. M.

A. P. Ciardella, I. M. Donsoff, S. J. Huang, D. L. Costa, and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 49(1), 25–37 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
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J. Salo, H. El-Sallabi, and P. Vainikainen, “The Distribution of the Product of Independent Rayleigh Random Variables,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(2), 639–643 (2006).
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A. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farah, M. E.

R. A. Costa, E. V. Navajas, M. E. Farah, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and I. U. Scott, “Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: angiographic characterization of the network vascular elements and a new treatment paradigm,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(5), 560–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Fercher and J. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, “Differential phase contrast in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 622–624 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findl, O.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
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Fingler, J.

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
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Francis, P.

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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Fraser, S. E.

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giorgi, R.

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
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Gotzinger, E.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010), https://cogrt.bk.tsukuba.ac.jp/COG/locked/yasuno/papers/BiOS2010Proceedings/DATA/7554_57.PDF .
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

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Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, K. Kawana, S. Makita, M. Sato, F. Okamoto, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, T. Yatagai, and T. Oshika, “Visualization of sub-retinal pigment epithelium morphologies of exudative macular diseases by high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 405–413 (2008).
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