Abstract

We demonstrate that azimuthally polarized surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers fabricated in a micro-ring resonator geometry can be coupled to cylindrical hollow aluminum waveguides reaching efficiencies as high ≈98%, when a collimating lens is used. By placing the waveguide in close contact with the QCL in a simple back-to-back geometry, the laser mode can be perfectly matched with the low loss TE01 waveguide mode showing attenuation losses as low as ≈2.3-2.7 dB/m at 3.2 THz.

© 2011 OSA

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  23. J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, “A Terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andronico, A.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, B.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detz, H.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, C.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. A.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filloux, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

George, R.

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, R. P.

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hajenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovenier, J. N.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H. W.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klang, P.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lampin, J.-F.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. W. M.

S. Kumar, A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leo, G.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losco, T.

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mbonye, M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, “A Terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, “A Terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, “A Terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, E.

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujagic, E.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nobile, M.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, P.

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei Min Lee, A.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, “Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, “A Terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kumar, A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, H. Ito, “Flexible Terahertz fiber optics with low bending-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

H. W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “Distributed feedback ring resonators for vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13031–13039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E (1)

T. Losco, J. Xu, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, “THz quantum cascade designs for optimized injection,” Physica E 40(6), 2207–2209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, S. Maeta, and T. Akiyama, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” in Optical Information, Data Processing and Storage, and Laser Communication Technologies J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. N.Rozanov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. S. Akhmanov, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5135, 70–77 (2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measured laser spectra of samples (a) and (b) driven with 200 ns pulses at 5 kHz repetition rate at a current of 2.04 A (sample a) and 2.14 A (sample b), respectively. The inset shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of a fabricated device. (b) Multimode pulsed emission spectra of sample c) driven with 200 ns pulses at 5 kHz repetition rate at a current of 1.62A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the experimental set-ups employed to couple the micro-ring QCL beam through the hollow waveguide with a Picarin collimating lens (a) or in a back-to-back configuration (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far field spatial intensity distribution of sample (a), (b) and (c), measured by collecting the unfocused QCL beam on a 2 cm far pyroelectric detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far field spatial intensity distribution of sample (a) upon exiting a 2 cm long, 2 mm (a), 1 mm (b), 90 μm (c) bore diameter aluminum waveguide. The beam profile has been measured by focusing the QCL beam on the waveguide entrance by means of an f/1 Picarin lens. The corresponding 3D plots of the far field intensities are reported in panels d-f.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured far field spatial intensity distribution of sample a) upon exiting a 2 cm long, 2 mm (a), 1 mm (b), bore diameter aluminum waveguide, mounted in a back-to-back configuration, 4 mm far from the QCL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D far field spatial intensity distribution of sample c) measured upon exiting a 2 cm long, 2 mm (a), 1 mm (b), 90 μm (c) bore diameter aluminum waveguide, mounted in a back-to-back configuration, 4 mm away from the QCL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coupling efficiency values plotted as a function of the waveguide bore diameter in sample a (●), sample b (○) and sample c (■),measured by focusing the QCL beam on the waveguide entrance by means of an f/1 Picarin lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Total losses measured from the ratio between the output and input power while coupling the micro-ring QCL beam (sample a) in a 2 mm bore diameter aluminum waveguide preferentially with the TE11 mode (●) using the Picarin lens or mostly with the TE01 mode (■) in the back-to-back configuration. The open symbols represent the results of identical experiments performed by using a 1 mm bore diameter waveguide. (b) Comparison of the measured total losses extracted while coupling the THz QCL light in a 2 mm bore diameter waveguide for sample a (●), sample b (▲) and sample c (■). The dashed lines are liner fits to the data. The errors bars show absolute maximum errors for each individual data point calculated using the standard deviation in the power measurements. The reported losses are calculated from the slope of each curve.

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