Abstract

InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a top nano-roughened p-GaN surface are fabricated using self-assembled CsCl nano-islands as etch masks. Following formation of hemispherical GaN nano-island arrays, electroluminescence (EL) spectra of roughened LEDs display an obvious redshift due to partial compression release in quantum wells through Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching. At a 350-mA current, the enhancement of light output power of LEDs subjected to ICP treatment with durations of 50, 150 and 250 sec compared with conventional LED have been determined to be 9.2, 70.6, and 42.3%, respectively. Additionally, the extraction enhancement factor can be further improved by increasing the size of CsCl nano-island. The economic and rapid method puts forward great potential for high performance lighting devices.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
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  8. E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C.-T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H707 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benisty, H.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-H.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-J.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-J.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H.-T.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, J. F.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

David, T.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. J.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, G.-Y.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.-S.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.-H.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, F.-L.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, M. H.

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. M.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Y.

H.-Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C.-T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H707 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hung-Wen Huang, C. C.

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-J.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E.-J.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-J.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. D.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-T.

H.-Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C.-T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H707 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C.-T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H707 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.-H.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, K.-I.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Na, S.-I.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, H. S.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.-K.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, H.

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-A.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-L.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S.-Z.

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. S.

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. C.

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zan, H. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chan, C.-H. Hou, S.-Z. Tseng, T.-J. Chen, H.-T. Chien, F.-L. Hsiao, C.-C. Lee, Y.-L. Tsai, and C.-C. Chen, “Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, H. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Displays

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays 29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

E.-J. Kang, C. Huh, S.-H. Lee, J.-J. Jung, S.-J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output power of InGaN/GaN LED by formation of nanosize cavities on p-GaN surface,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8(12), G327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “Efficiency Improvement of GaN-Based LEDs With SiO2 Microrod Array and Textured Sidewalls,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(1), 35–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. C. Hung-Wen Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Na, G.-Y. Ha, D.-S. Han, S.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lim, D.-J. Kim, K.-I. Min, and S.-J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H.-Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C.-T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H707 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Improvement of light output in GaN-based power chip light-emitting diodes with a nano-rough surface by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 045022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Fred, Schubert: Light-Emitting Diodes, (Cambridge University Press, 2003) p. 89.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration for texturization of the GaN surface using the CsCl nano-islands as an etch mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM images of the top surface morphology of LED. (a) CsCl islands on p-GaN surface with average size of 450 nm. Nano-roughened p-GaN surface with ICP etching durations of (b) 50, (c) 150 and (d) 250 sec.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) I-V forward characteristics and (b) leakage current as a function of reverse bias of conventional and ICP-roughened LEDs. The inset shows a SEM cross-section micrograph of p-GaN etched for 250 sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Light output powers and (b) peak wavelengths and FWHMs of EL peaks for the LEDs without and with ICP etching treatment as a function of the injection current. The inset in (a) shows photos of conventional and roughened LEDs with 150 sec-etched at an injection current of 1 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far-field emission patterns of the conventional and ICP-roughened LEDs at an injection current of 200 mA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light extraction enhancements of LEDs as a function of the nano-island size under the optimum 150 sec ICP etching at an injection current of 350 mA. The inset shows the typical rough surface with island average size of 650 nm.

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