Abstract

Coherent x-ray diffractive microscopy enables full reconstruction of the complex transmission function of an isolated object to diffraction-limited resolution without relying on any optical elements between the sample and detector. In combination with ptychography, also specimens of unlimited lateral extension can be imaged. Here we report on an application of ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging (PCDI) in the soft x-ray regime, more precisely in the so-called water window of photon energies where the high scattering contrast between carbon and oxygen is well-suited to image biological samples. In particular, we have reconstructed the complex sample transmission function of a fossil diatom at a photon energy of 517 eV. In imaging a lithographically fabricated test sample a resolution on the order of 50 nm (half-period length) has been achieved. Along with this proof-of-principle for PCDI at soft x-ray wavelengths, we discuss the experimental and technical challenges which can occur especially for soft x-ray PCDI.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  33. D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
  34. H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. A. Nugent, "Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences," Adv. Phys. 59, 1-99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, and V. Elser, "X-ray diffraction microscopy," Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237-255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, H. Neubauer, S. Kalbfleisch, S. P. Krüger, and T. Salditt, "Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources," N. J. Phys. 12, 035008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, "An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256-1262 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

2008

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, and J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach," Opt. Express 16, 7264-7278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

2006

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, "Waveguide-based off-axis holography with hard x rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

2004

C. A. Larabell, and M. A. Le Gros, "X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution," Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, E. H. Anderson, and K. O. Hodgson, "Phase retrieval of diffraction patterns from noncrystalline samples using the oversampling method," Phys. Rev. B 67, 174104 (2003).

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

R. Gens, "Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 703-710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. N. Chapman, "Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution," Ultramicroscopy 66, 153-172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at e = 50-30,000 ev, z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

Anderson, E. H.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, E. H. Anderson, and K. O. Hodgson, "Phase retrieval of diffraction patterns from noncrystalline samples using the oversampling method," Phys. Rev. B 67, 174104 (2003).

Barth, R.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Bunk, O.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

H. N. Chapman, "Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution," Ultramicroscopy 66, 153-172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christophis, C.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. N.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

Cullis, A. G.

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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at e = 50-30,000 ev, z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
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M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
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O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, and J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach," Opt. Express 16, 7264-7278 (2008).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at e = 50-30,000 ev, z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at e = 50-30,000 ev, z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

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J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, E. H. Anderson, and K. O. Hodgson, "Phase retrieval of diffraction patterns from noncrystalline samples using the oversampling method," Phys. Rev. B 67, 174104 (2003).

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J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
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J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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Marchesini, S.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

Marti, O.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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McNulty, I.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

Menzel, A.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
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Miao, J.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, E. H. Anderson, and K. O. Hodgson, "Phase retrieval of diffraction patterns from noncrystalline samples using the oversampling method," Phys. Rev. B 67, 174104 (2003).

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mittler, S.

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
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Neiman, A. M.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
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Neubauer, H.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. Neubauer, S. Kalbfleisch, S. P. Krüger, and T. Salditt, "Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources," N. J. Phys. 12, 035008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nisius, T.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

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K. A. Nugent, "Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences," Adv. Phys. 59, 1-99 (2010).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

Ollinger, C.

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, "Waveguide-based off-axis holography with hard x rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).

Paterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
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C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Peele, A. G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pettit, M. E.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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Pfeifer, M. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

Quiney, H. M.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reime, B.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, "An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256-1262 (2009).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

J. M. Rodenburg, and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
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Rosenhahn, A.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, H. Neubauer, S. Kalbfleisch, S. P. Krüger, and T. Salditt, "Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources," N. J. Phys. 12, 035008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, "Waveguide-based off-axis holography with hard x rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, I.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schoder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Schwab, A.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Shapiro, D.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T.

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singer, A.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

Staier, F.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrener, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

Stohr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, and V. Elser, "X-ray diffraction microscopy," Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237-255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C. Q.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

Treusch, R.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vine, D. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

von König, K.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

Weiss, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

Yefanov, O. M.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
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K. A. Nugent, "Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences," Adv. Phys. 59, 1-99 (2010).
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P. Thibault, and V. Elser, "X-ray diffraction microscopy," Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237-255 (2010).
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J. M. Rodenburg, and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, "Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
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At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at e = 50-30,000 ev, z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
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R. Gens, "Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 703-710 (2003).
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A. Rosenhahn, R. Barth, F. Staier, T. Simpson, S. Mittler, S. Eisebitt, and M. Grunze, "Digital in-line soft x-ray holography with element contrast," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 416-422 (2008).
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C. A. Larabell, and M. A. Le Gros, "X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution," Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
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K. Giewekemeyer, H. Neubauer, S. Kalbfleisch, S. P. Krüger, and T. Salditt, "Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources," N. J. Phys. 12, 035008 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, "Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser flash," N. J. Phys. 12, 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens," N. J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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Nat. Phys.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
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Nature

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, and J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach," Opt. Express 16, 7264-7278 (2008).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, "Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).

Phys. Rev. B

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, E. H. Anderson, and K. O. Hodgson, "Phase retrieval of diffraction patterns from noncrystalline samples using the oversampling method," Phys. Rev. B 67, 174104 (2003).

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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, "Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schoder, and C. Riekel, "Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, "Waveguide-based off-axis holography with hard x rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, "Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, "High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7235-7239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, "Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529-534 (2010).
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Science

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
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O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, "Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging," Ultramicroscopy 109, 338-343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, "Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images," Ultramicroscopy 84, 185-197 (2000).
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C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, "Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics," Ultramicroscopy 110, 325-329 (2010).
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Other

The pinhole actually had a slightly elliptical shape with largest (smallest) diameter of about 2 μm (1.5 μm).

Matlab is a registered trademark of The Mathworks Inc.

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