Abstract

A novel technique for depth filtering of integral imaging is proposed. Integral imaging captures spatio-angular distribution of the light rays which delivers three-dimensional information of the object scene. The proposed method performs filtering operation in the frequency domain of the captured spatio-angular light ray distribution, achieving depth selective reconstruction. Grating projection further enhances the depth discrimination performance. The principle is verified experimentally.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Davies, M. McCormick, and L. Yang, “Three-dimensional imaging systems: a new development,” Appl. Opt. 27(21), 4520 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1704–1712 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4814–4822 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 504–511 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 862–867 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3766–3773 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 998–1007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, “Recent Developments in 3-D Imaging Technologies,” J. Display Technol. 6(10), 394–403 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924–934 (2006).
  15. J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, I. Chung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26373–26387 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12096–12108 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5311–5320 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4026–4036 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5754–5760 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6320–6334 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J.-B. Hyun, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Curved computational integral imaging reconstruction technique for resolution-enhanced display of three-dimensional object images,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7697–7708 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Javidi and Y. S. Hwang, “Passive near-infrared 3D sensing and computational reconstruction with synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 3–5 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2859–2869 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(2), 0202161–0202163 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J.-X. Chai, S.-C. Chan, H.-Y. Shum, and X. Tong, “Plenoptic sampling,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 307–318 (2000).
  28. X. Chen, M. Gramaglia, and J. A. Yeazell, “Phase-shift calibration algorithm for phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(11), 2061–2066 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (6)

2008 (3)

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

Arai, J.

Athineos, S.

Baasantseren, G.

M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6320–6334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(2), 0202161–0202163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Choi, K.-H.

Chung, I.

Davies, N.

Dohi, T.

Gramaglia, M.

Hahn, J.

Hong, K.

Hong, S.-H.

Hoshino, H.

Hwang, D.-C.

Hwang, Y. S.

Hyun, J.-B.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jung, J.-H.

Kang, J.-M.

Kim, E.-S.

Kim, J.

Kim, M.-S.

Kim, N.

M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6320–6334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(2), 0202161–0202163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-C.

Kim, Y.

Kwon, K.-C.

M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, I. Chung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26373–26387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 998–1007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 504–511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 862–867 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3766–3773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-J.

Liao, H.

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

Min, S.-W.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 862–867 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, T.

Moon, I.

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Passalis, G.

Pons, A.

Rosen, J.

Saavedra, G.

Sgouros, N.

Shaked, N. T.

Shin, D.-H.

Shin, M.

M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

Stern, A.

Theoharis, T.

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

Yano, S.

Yeazell, J. A.

Yeom, S.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (12)

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and L. Yang, “Three-dimensional imaging systems: a new development,” Appl. Opt. 27(21), 4520 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 504–511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 862–867 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3766–3773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48(5), 998–1007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1704–1712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5311–5320 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4026–4036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. Hyun, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Curved computational integral imaging reconstruction technique for resolution-enhanced display of three-dimensional object images,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7697–7708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2859–2869 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(2), 0202161–0202163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Shin, G. Baasantseren, K.-C. Kwon, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging with viewing direction control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 0725011–0725017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, I. Chung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26373–26387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12096–12108 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4814–4822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5754–5760 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6320–6334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J.-X. Chai, S.-C. Chan, H.-Y. Shum, and X. Tong, “Plenoptic sampling,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 307–318 (2000).

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924–934 (2006).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (1516 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1628 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2060 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (2052 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (2028 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (2004 KB)     

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of integral imaging capture

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency spectrum of a single plane object

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Procedure of proposed depth filtering

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D scene used in simulation

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation result of depth filtering.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

View reconstructions: (a) 9 examples and (b) movie (Media 1) using original data, (c) 9 examples and (d) movie (Media 2) using filtered data

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency spectrum (a) without grating projection and (b) with grating spectrum

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A slice of spatio-angular light ray distribution: (a) amplitude and (b) phase of x-θ plot at y=φ =0, (c) amplitude and (d) phase of y-φ plot at x=θ=0

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Depth filtering results (a) without grating projection, (b) with grating projection

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A slice of spatio-angular frequency spectrum (a) fx -fθ plot at fy =fφ =0 and (b) fy -fφ plot at fx =fθ =0 without grating projection, (c) fx -fθ plot at fy =fφ =0 and (d) fy -fφ plot at fx =fθ =0 with grating projection

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental setup (a) object (b) configuration

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Captured elemental images

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental depth filtering result

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Examples of the view synthesis (a) original data, (b) filtered for ‘J’ and ‘M’, (c) filtered for ‘J’ and ‘K’, and (d) filtered for ‘K’ and ‘M’

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Movies of view synthesis (a) (Media 3) original data (b) (Media 4) filtered for ‘J’ and ‘M’, (c) (Media 5) filtered for ‘J’ and ‘K’, and (d) (Media 6) filtered for ‘K’ and ‘M’

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental setup for grating projection (a) configuration, (b) captured elemental images

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Synthesized set of elemental images (a) amplitude (b) phase

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

A slice of spatio-angular frequency spectrum (fx -fθ plot at fy =fφ =0) (a) without grating projection (b) with grating projection

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Experimental result of depth discrimination enhancement using grating projection

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l ( x , θ ) = f ( x + θ z ) ,
L ( f x , f θ ) = f ( x + θ z ) e j 2 π ( f x x + f θ θ ) d x d θ ,           = F ( f x ) δ ( f x z f θ )
| l ( x , θ ) | = l 0 ° ( x , θ ) + l 180 ° ( x , θ ) 2 ,
l ( x , θ ) = 2 tan 1 ( l 0 ° ( x , θ ) l 180 ° ( x , θ ) l 90 ° ( x , θ ) l 270 ° ( x , θ ) ) ,
l ( x , θ ) = f ( x + θ z ) exp { j 2 π ( x + θ z ) T x } .
f c ( x ) = f ( x ) exp ( j 2 π T x x ) ,

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