Abstract

We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-instrument calibration method based on a multiwavelength ocean surface model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction from Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data: algorithm description,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(6), 1105–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Keil and J. M. Haywood, “Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during safari 2000: a case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13), 8467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Howell and B. J. Huebert, “Determining marine aerosol scattering characteristics at ambient humidity from size-resolved chemical composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D1), 1391–1404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Key and A. J. Schweiger, “Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet,” Comput. Geosci. 24(5), 443–451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1984

1981

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distribution by lidar,” Appl. Opt. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Ackerman, S. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colarco, P. R.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. L.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Durden, S.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durden, S. L.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23(5), 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distribution by lidar,” Appl. Opt. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Ferrare, R.

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flamant, C.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gettelman, A.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J. W.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, D. B.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, J. M.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, J. M.

A. Keil and J. M. Haywood, “Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during safari 2000: a case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13), 8467 (2003).
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Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distribution by lidar,” Appl. Opt. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, R.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovenier, J. W.

Hovis, F. E.

Howell, S. G.

S. G. Howell and B. J. Huebert, “Determining marine aerosol scattering characteristics at ambient humidity from size-resolved chemical composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D1), 1391–1404 (1998).
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Hu, Y.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-instrument calibration method based on a multiwavelength ocean surface model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huebert, B. J.

S. G. Howell and B. J. Huebert, “Determining marine aerosol scattering characteristics at ambient humidity from size-resolved chemical composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D1), 1391–1404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ichoku, C.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Im, E.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izquierdo, L. R.

Josset, D.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-instrument calibration method based on a multiwavelength ocean surface model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kay, J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keil, A.

A. Keil and J. M. Haywood, “Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during safari 2000: a case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13), 8467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Key, J.

J. Key and A. J. Schweiger, “Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet,” Comput. Geosci. 24(5), 443–451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kittaka, C.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleidman, R. G.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Koepke, P.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubar, T. L.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, R.

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L’Ecuyer, T.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lapyonok, T.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lebsock, M.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LeTreut, H.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R. C.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. R.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mace, G. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mack, T. L.

Marchand, R.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, R. T.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maring, H.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martins, J. V.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Muñoz, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Omar, A.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pak, K. S.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Partain, P.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
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D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-instrument calibration method based on a multiwavelength ocean surface model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K. A.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Protat, A.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distribution by lidar,” Appl. Opt. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Reinke, D.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinke, D. G.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R.

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. R.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rokey, M.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, A. J.

J. Key and A. J. Schweiger, “Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet,” Comput. Geosci. 24(5), 443–451 (1998).
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Sinyuk, A.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanelli, S.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration, and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. N. Holben, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thornhill, K.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vane, D. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M. A.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction from Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data: algorithm description,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(6), 1105–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waliser, D.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W.

Wielicki, B. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, R. Rogers, R. Ferrare, R. Kuehn, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winstead, E.

A. Omar, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, K. Thornhill, C. Kittaka, S. Ismail, Y. Hu, G. Chen, K. Powell, D. Winker, C. Trepte, E. Winstead, and B. Anderson, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust layers derived from in situ measurements and CALIPSO overflights during NAMMA,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D24), D24217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettelman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction from Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data: algorithm description,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(6), 1105–1119 (2009).
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S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7019–7031 (1995).
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Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. A. Ferrare, Z. Liu, M. D. Obland, D. B. Harper, A. L. Cook, K. A. Powell, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker, “Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 1295–1311 (2011).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3d view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Estimation of the expected maximum and minimum of the lidar ratio for two monomodal lognormal distributions and non-absorbing aerosols. A narrow distribution with a width of 0.4 (solid line for the maximum) and a larger one with a width of 0.6 (solid dotted line for the maximum).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Expected relative error of the column lidar ratio retrieval as a function of aerosol optical depth for different optical depth error (solid line error of 0.02, solid dotted 0.04 and dotted 0.06).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HSRL lidar ratio (Sp in sr) vertical profile as a function of latitude (quicklooks) for the 3 cases of 9 february 2009 (a), 24 August 2010 (b) and 18 August 2010 (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical depth for 3 cases of 9 February 2009 (a), 24 August 2010 (b) and 18 August 2010 (c) determined from the CALIPSO lidar ocean surface return and measured by an airborne HSRL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As in Fig. 4 but showing the column lidar ratio for the 3 cases.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of the relative difference of the data represented in Fig. 5.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the three cases presented here

Equations (14)

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α p = 0 σ e x t ( D ) N ( D ) d D
β p = 0 P 11 ( π ) σ s c a ( D ) N ( D ) d D
S p ¯ ¯ = α p β p = 0 σ e x t ( D ) N ( D ) d D 0 P 11 ( π ) σ s c a ( D ) N ( D ) d D 1 ω P 11 ( π ) ¯ ¯
S p ¯ = Z s Z t α ( z ' ) d z ' Z s Z t β ( z ' ) d z '
S p = 1 e 2 τ p ¯ 2 Γ p ¯
S p , 532 = 1 e 2 τ p , 532 ¯ 2 Γ p , 532 ¯
β t o t , 532 ( z ) e 2 τ t o t , 532 ( z ) = [ β p , 532 ( z ) + β m , 532 ( z ) ] e 2 τ p , 532 ( z ) e 2 τ m , 532 ( z )
S p , 1064 532 = 1 e 2 τ p , 532 ¯ 2 Γ p , 1064 ¯
β p , 532 ( z ) e 2 τ p , 532 ( z ) = S p , 1064 532 S p , 532 β p , 1064 ( z ) e 2 τ p , 1064 ( z )
β m , 532 ( z ) e 2 τ p , 532 ( z ) = β m , 532 ( z ) [ 1 2 S p , 1064 532 Γ p , 1064 ( z ) ]
Γ p , 532 ¯ = Z s Z t { β t o t , 532 ( z ' ) e 2 τ t o t , 532 ( z ' ) e 2 τ m , 532 ( z ' ) β m , 532 ( z ' ) [ 1 2 S p , 1064 532 Γ p , 1064 ( z ' ) ] } d z '
| Δ S p S p | = | 2 Δ τ p ¯ e 2 τ p ¯ 1 | + | Δ Γ p ¯ Γ p ¯ |
S N R * = Γ p , 532 Γ p , 532 2 Γ p , 532 2
S V C A D = Z s Z t | S p ( z ) ¯ ¯ S p ¯ | d z Z t Z s

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