Abstract

Large aspect ratio 3D microstructures (arrays of square posts and linear rectangular gratings) fabricated in a number of azobenzene-containing materials by soft lithography were manipulated by a single beam of polarized light. The materials exhibited different response to the beam orientation and the direction of light polarization. An elongation of the square posts both along and perpendicular to the polarization plane was observed depending on material. Reversibility of the deformation has been demonstrated. Broadening of the hills, amplitude and shape changing were observed for linear gratings. A slanted expose led to the blazed asymmetric structures. Some aspects of light-induced deformation mechanisms in azobenzene-containing materials are discussed. The approach developed in the paper can be useful both for the understanding of mass transport mechanism in azobenzene-containing materials and for the fabrication of diffracted optical structures.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. M. Goldenberg and O. Kulikovska, unpublished results.

2011 (2)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, S. Wu, S. Beckemper, A. Gillner, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “All-optical fabrication of ellipsoidal caps on azobenzene functional polymers,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2711–2713 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Three-dimensional planarized diffraction structures based on surface relief gratings in azobenzene materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1309–1311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular Azobenzene-Based Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 19(13), 3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, and X. Wang, “Fabrication of Photoprocessible Azo Polymer Microwires through a Soft Lithographic Approach,” Langmuir 22(24), 10233–10237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of Liquid-Crystal Systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amitai, Y.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckemper, S.

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, P.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friesem, A. A.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gillner, A.

Goldenberg, L. M.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Three-dimensional planarized diffraction structures based on surface relief gratings in azobenzene materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1309–1311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular Azobenzene-Based Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 19(13), 3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gritsai, Y.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Three-dimensional planarized diffraction structures based on surface relief gratings in azobenzene materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1309–1311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, and X. Wang, “Fabrication of Photoprocessible Azo Polymer Microwires through a Soft Lithographic Approach,” Langmuir 22(24), 10233–10237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of Liquid-Crystal Systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilnytskyi, J.

J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).

Joennson, E.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

König, T.

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovska, O.

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Three-dimensional planarized diffraction structures based on surface relief gratings in azobenzene materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1309–1311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular Azobenzene-Based Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 19(13), 3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulikovsky, L.

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, and X. Wang, “Fabrication of Photoprocessible Azo Polymer Microwires through a Soft Lithographic Approach,” Langmuir 22(24), 10233–10237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Millul, E.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neher, D.

J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakhno, O.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santer, S.

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saphianikova, M.

J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).

Shechter, R.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Three-dimensional planarized diffraction structures based on surface relief gratings in azobenzene materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1309–1311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular Azobenzene-Based Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 19(13), 3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomczyk, J.

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X.

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, and X. Wang, “Fabrication of Photoprocessible Azo Polymer Microwires through a Soft Lithographic Approach,” Langmuir 22(24), 10233–10237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, V.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Phenomenology of Photoinduced Processes in the Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1739–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart Ionic Sol-Gel-Based Azobenzene Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular Azobenzene-Based Materials for Optical Generation of Microstructures,” Chem. Mater. 19(13), 3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of Liquid-Crystal Systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cond. Matt. Phys. (1)

J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphianikova, and D. Neher, “Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers: molecular dynamics study,” Cond. Matt. Phys. 9, 87–94 (2006).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Photoinduced deformation of amphiphilic azo polymer colloidal spheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2402–2403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (4)

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Very efficient surface relief holographic materials based on azobenzene-containing epoxy resins cured in films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(41), 9161–9171 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Extremely high patterning efficiency in easily made azobenzene-containing polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(34), 6103–6105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “New materials with detachable azobenzene: effective, colourless and extremely stable surface relief gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(43), 8068–8071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (2)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, and J. Stumpe, “Efficient surface relief grating generated in azobenzene-containing material using He-Ne laser,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075601–075604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic structures using a single polymer phase mask,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015103–015110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “3D structures using surface relief gratings of azobenzene materials,” J. Opt. A 10, 125304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (5)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, “Stretching effect of linearly polarized Ar+ laser single-beam on azo polymer colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 22(5), 2288–2291 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, and X. Wang, “Fabrication of Photoprocessible Azo Polymer Microwires through a Soft Lithographic Approach,” Langmuir 22(24), 10233–10237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, “Azo Polymer Microspherical Cap Array: Soft-Lithographic Fabrication and Photoinduced Shape Deformation Behavior,” Langmuir 23(22), 11266–11272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin Layers of Low Molecular Azobenzene Materials with Effective Light-Induced Mass Transport,” Langmuir 26(4), 2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, “Thermally Stable HoloGraphic surface Relief Gratings and Switchable Optical Anisotropy in Films of an Azobenzene-Containing Polyelectrolyte,” Langmuir 21(11), 4794–4796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

V. Weiss, E. Millul, E. Joennson, R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, “Materials for the recording of thin holographic grating couplers,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(5-6), 413–418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. Gritsai, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “All-optical fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic micro-structures in polymeric materials,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161V, 77161V-13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Generation of microstructures in novel supramolecular ionic materials based on azobenzene,” Proc. SPIE 6999, 69990I, 69990I-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter (1)

T. König, L. M. Goldenberg, O. Kulikovska, L. Kulikovsky, J. Stumpe, and S. Santer, “Reversible structuring of photosensitive polymer films by surface plasmon near field radiation,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4174–4178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. M. Goldenberg and O. Kulikovska, unpublished results.

ed., Y.Zhao, and T.Ikeda, Smart light-responsive Materials. Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals (Wiley Hoboken, New Jersey, USA 2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM calibration grating structures: for TGZ step height 1µm (TGZ04) and 1.5µm (TGZ11) (according to the manufacturer Mikromasch).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2D AFM image of original grating and its transformation with elongation in different direction upon exposure to polarized light in material as indicated: material A (300 mW/cm2, 50 min); material F (100 mW/cm2, 100 min).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2D AFM images of reversible transformation of array of square posts upon changing of light polarization direction as indicated, material E, exposure step 1 and 2 (600 mW/cm2, 60 min), third step exposure (600 mW/cm2, 120 min)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slanted exposure of array of square post in material B (p-polarization, 300 mW/cm2, 30 min). a, b – AFM pictures, d,e – diffraction microscopic pictures taken with Bertrand lens, c – scheme of exposure; a, d – before, b, e – after exposure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transformation of deep (1.5 µm) tetragonal profile linear grating (a) in material B upon exposure with polarization perpendicular to grating lines (300 mW/cm2, 30 (b), then 60 (c) min) and corresponding profiles (d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a-c) Transformation of linear grating in material C upon exposure with polarization perpendicular (300 mW/cm2, 30 min) and then along grating lines (300 mW/cm2, 60 min) and corresponding cross-sections (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transformation of tetragonal profile linear grating in material B into different asymmetrical grating upon slanted exposure (angle ca 45 to the sample plane) depending on angle direction as indicated (300 mW/cm2, 30 min).

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