Abstract

Non-invasive diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of the adult brain has recently been shown to improve the spatial resolution for functional brain imaging applications. Here we show that high-resolution (HR) DOT is also advantageous for clinical perfusion imaging using an optical contrast agent. We present the first HR-DOT results with a continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy setup using a dense grid of optical fibers and indocyanine green (ICG) as an exogenic contrast agent. We find an early arrival of the ICG bolus in the intracerebral tissue and a delayed arrival of the bolus in the extracerebral tissue, achieving the separation of both layers. This demonstrates the method’s potential for brain perfusion monitoring in neurointensive care patients.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  15. E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. R. White and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative evaluation of high-density diffuse optical tomography: in vivo resolution and mapping performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
[PubMed]

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G.

Alkadhi, H.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andronica, R.

Arif, I.

Barbour, R.

Barbour, R. L.

Barbour, S. L.

Bluestone, A.

Boas, D. A.

Bramer, S.

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

Chen, K.

Culver, J. P.

B. R. White and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative evaluation of high-density diffuse optical tomography: in vivo resolution and mapping performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmettre, T.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

Devoisselle, J. M.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

Einhäupl, K.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdmann, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Frei, K.

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

Grebert, D.

Gröschel, K.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habermehl, C.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

Harscher, S.

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hielscher, A.

Hira, J.

Holtze, S.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hopton, P.

P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ishihara, H.

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastrup, A.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, E.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. P.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kohl, M.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl-Bareis, M.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, S. S.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwant, G.

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

Landsman, M. L.

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

Lee, A.

P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
[PubMed]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

Macdonald, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malak, J.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehnert, J.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

Möller, M.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mook, G. A.

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

Mordon, S.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nadler, A.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neufang, M.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederer, P.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pei, Y.

Petrovitch, A.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez, N.

Ringer, T.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, C.

Schmitz, C. H.

Schnaudigel, S.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, B.

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, M.

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

Soller, I.

Soulie-Begu, S.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terborg, C.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

Uludag, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, T. S.

P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
[PubMed]

Wenzel, R.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

B. R. White and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative evaluation of high-density diffuse optical tomography: in vivo resolution and mapping performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, O. W.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

Yonekawa, Y.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, S.

Zijlstra, W. G.

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Eur. Neurol. (1)

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, O. W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Eur. Neurol. 62(6), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Front Neuroenergetics (1)

S. P. Koch, C. Habermehl, J. Mehnert, C. H. Schmitz, S. Holtze, A. Villringer, J. Steinbrink, and H. Obrig, “High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex,” Front Neuroenergetics 2, 12 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (2)

P. Hopton, T. S. Walsh, and A. Lee, “Measurement of cerebral blood volume using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green elimination,” J. Appl. Physiol. 87(5), 1981–1987 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. L. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, “Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green,” J. Appl. Physiol. 40(4), 575–583 (1976).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative evaluation of high-density diffuse optical tomography: in vivo resolution and mapping performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fr. Ophtalmol. (1)

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, S. Soulie-Begu, and S. Mordon, “[Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG)],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 22(9), 1003–1016 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75(1), 38–42 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

E. Keller, H. Ishihara, A. Nadler, P. Niederer, B. Seifert, Y. Yonekawa, and K. Frei, “Evaluation of brain toxicity following near infrared light exposure after indocyanine green dye injection,” J. Neurosci. Methods 117(1), 23–31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Neuroimage (3)

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhäupl, and A. Villringer, “Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults,” Neuroimage 12(6), 623–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution,” Neuroimage 20(2), 828–839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage 31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (290 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (480 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging setup. (a) Absorption changes were measured with a DOT imaging system (DYNOT, NIRx Medizintechnik GmbH, Berlin, Germany) (b) A 5x6 fiber grid with 30 co-located sources and detectors was placed pericentrally over the right hemisphere. (c), (d) Finite element mesh that was used for image reconstruction of relative absorption changes. Red dots indicate the positions of the optical fibers in the forward geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized detector readings following an ICG bolus (subject 1, λ = 760 nm). Red lines indicate the time course of all 1st NN combinations (SD distance 7.5 mm). Blue lines represent the time course for all 3rd NN combinations (SD distance 22.5 mm). The average of all 1st NN and 3rd NN time courses is given in bold. Box in the left corner depicts the fiber grid set-up and the channels taken for the different time courses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Single frames from a video (Media 1), depicting the frontal view on the reconstructed result volume (subject 1, 1st ICG bolus and λ = 760 nm). Green voxels indicate increased absorption. Voxels are colored semi-transparent, bolus injection was at t = 0-1 s. (b) Same view on the reconstructed result volume as in (a), displaying for each voxel the time (in s after bolus injection) when 50% of the maximum absorption value was reached. (c) Transversal slice from an anatomical scan of the used forward model geometry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time courses of normalized relative absorption changes for subject 1 and both boli and wavelengths. Red lines represent the averaged intensity values from superficial voxels; blue lines represent intensity values from voxels from deeper (cortical) layers. Injection of the ICG bolus was at t = 0-1s. Note, that due to manual injection, this time point is only an approximation. (a) 1st ICG bolus, λ = 760 nm. (b) 1st bolus, λ = 830 nm. (c) 2nd bolus, λ = 760 nm. (d) 2nd bolus, λ = 830 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Subject 2. Frontal view on the reconstruction volume, color-coded voxels depict the time (in s after bolus injection (t = 0-3 s)) when 50% of the maximum absorption value was reached. (b) Subject 2, reconstructed time courses for deep and superficial voxels for λ = 760 nm. (c), (d) Same as (a), (b) but for subject 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single frames from a video (Media 2) of a lateral view on a 10 mm thick slice (60 x 60 mm wide) of superficial layers for subject 1, the 1st ICG bolus and λ = 760 nm. Green voxels indicate increased absorption.

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