Abstract

Operation of an end-pumped Yb3+: CaYAlO4 laser operating in the positive dispersion regime is experimentally investigated. The laser emitted strongly chirped pulses with extremely steep spectral edges, resembling the characteristics of dissipative solitons observed in fiber lasers. The results show that dissipative soliton emission constitutes another operating regime for mode locked Yb3+-doped solid state lasers, which can be explored for the generation of stable large energy femtosecond pulses.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers–­-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. Lucas Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 119–121 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Proctor, E. Westwig, and F. Wise, “Characterization of a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with positive group-velocity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18(19), 1654–1656 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. H. Cho, F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, “Generation of 90-nJ pulses with 4-MHz repetition-rate Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser operating with net positive and negative intracavity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 560–562 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, “Gain-guided soliton in a positive group-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1788–1790 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5580–5584 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2008

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

2001

S. H. Cho, F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, “Generation of 90-nJ pulses with 4-MHz repetition-rate Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser operating with net positive and negative intracavity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 560–562 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, “Pulsating solitons, chaotic solitons, period doubling, and pulse coexistence in mode-locked lasers: complex Ginzburg–Landau equation approach,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(5 Pt 2), 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers–­-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

Akhmediev, N.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, “Pulsating solitons, chaotic solitons, period doubling, and pulse coexistence in mode-locked lasers: complex Ginzburg–Landau equation approach,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(5 Pt 2), 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Balembois, F.

Buckley, J.

Chang, W.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Chong, A.

Cunningham, J. E.

De Tan, W.

der Au, J. A.

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers–­-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Didierjean, J.

Druon, F.

Fernandez, A.

Fuji, T.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fürbach, A.

Georges, P.

Goldner, P.

Goodberlet, J.

Grelu, Ph.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. L. Kalashnikov and A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a unified standpoint,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers–­-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Krausz, F.

Li, D. Z.

Lucas Leclin, G.

Morgner, U.

Petit, J.

Poppe, A.

Proctor, B.

Renninger, W.

Renninger, W. H.

Schulz, P. A.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, “Pulsating solitons, chaotic solitons, period doubling, and pulse coexistence in mode-locked lasers: complex Ginzburg–Landau equation approach,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(5 Pt 2), 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, L. B.

Tan, W. D.

Tang, D. Y.

Town, G.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, “Pulsating solitons, chaotic solitons, period doubling, and pulse coexistence in mode-locked lasers: complex Ginzburg–Landau equation approach,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(5 Pt 2), 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

Wang, J.

Westwig, E.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xu, C. W.

Xu, F.

Xu, J.

Xu, X. D.

Zaouter, Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, L. M.

Zheng, L. H.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers–­-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems––conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

W. D. Tan, D. Y. Tang, X. D. Xu, D. Z. Li, J. Zhang, C. W. Xu, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond and continuous-wave laser performance of a diode-pumped Yb3+:CaYAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 259–261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, and P. A. Schulz, “Femtosecond passively mode-locked Ti:Al(2)O(3) laser with a nonlinear external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 14(20), 1125–1127 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Proctor, E. Westwig, and F. Wise, “Characterization of a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with positive group-velocity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18(19), 1654–1656 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, “Generation of 90-nJ pulses with 4-MHz repetition-rate Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser operating with net positive and negative intracavity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 560–562 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Fürbach, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1366–1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. Lucas Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 119–121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, “Gain-guided soliton in a positive group-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1788–1790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. A

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

V. L. Kalashnikov and A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a unified standpoint,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, “Pulsating solitons, chaotic solitons, period doubling, and pulse coexistence in mode-locked lasers: complex Ginzburg–Landau equation approach,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(5 Pt 2), 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. F1: Aspherical lens, f = 8 mm. F2: Plano-concave cylindrical lens, f = −25.4 mm. F3: Plano-convex cylindrical lens, f = 125 mm. F4: Plano-convex lens, f = 75 mm. M1, M2 and M3: Plano-concave mirrors, ROC = −100 mm, −300 mm and −100 mm, respectively. OC and SESAM: Flat Mirrors. L1 = 23.5 cm, L2 = 50 cm, L3 = 5.4 cm and L4 = 90 cm. OC: Output couplers with transmissions, T of 0.8% or 5%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output vs. absorbed power relations. Closed circles: T = 0.8%. Closed squares: T = 5%. The red, green and yellow lines represent the CW, Q-switched mode-locking, and CW mode-locking, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the mode-locked pulses under different pump powers with (a) T = 0.8% and (b) T = 5%. The spectra were obtained under an absorbed pump power of between 5 W to 5.5 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autocorrelation traces when T = 0.8%. a) Uncompressed trace and b) compressed trace. Closed circles are experimental data while the solid blue line is a sech2 fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocorrelation traces when T = 5%. a) Uncompressed trace and b) compressed trace. Closed circles are experimental data while the solid blue line is a sech2 fit.

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