Abstract

We theoretically present in-plane multiple guided emissions of metallically confined microdisk lasers which can be applied to drive multiple elements in compact photonic integration at the same time. Two to four-port microdisks with transverse magnetic and electric polarizations are investigated based on finite difference time domain simulation and padé approximation. Modes filtering of coupling ports are verified by the calculated mode quality factors (Q) which are decided by the matching of coupling ports with the energy density distribution of corresponding modes. Single mode lasing operation of semiconductor microdisk with guided emissions is possibly realized by selectively pumping.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23010–23015 (2009).
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  11. F. Ou, X. Y. Li, B. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Enhanced radiation-loss-based radial-waveguide-coupled electrically pumped microresonator lasers with single-directional output,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1722–1724 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
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  17. M. Hentschel and K. Richter, “Quantum chaos in optical systems: the annular billiard,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056207 (2002).
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  18. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
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  19. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–20 (1983).
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  22. K. J. Che, Y. Z. Huang, H. Y. Xu, and Z. P. Cai, “Port output of metallo-dielectric confined circular microlasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1374–1376 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

F. Ou, X. Y. Li, B. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Enhanced radiation-loss-based radial-waveguide-coupled electrically pumped microresonator lasers with single-directional output,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1722–1724 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Hentschel and K. Richter, “Quantum chaos in optical systems: the annular billiard,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11(5), 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Baba, T.

M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z. P.

Chang, R. K.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Che, K. J.

K. J. Che, Y. Z. Huang, H. Y. Xu, and Z. P. Cai, “Port output of metallo-dielectric confined circular microlasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1374–1376 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Che, K.-J.

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Djordjev, K.

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z. C.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glass, J. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.-H.

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11(5), 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harayama, T.

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel and K. Richter, “Quantum chaos in optical systems: the annular billiard,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Hong, T.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

Huang, Y. Z.

K. J. Che, Y. Z. Huang, H. Y. Xu, and Z. P. Cai, “Port output of metallo-dielectric confined circular microlasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1374–1376 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-Z.

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11(5), 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoshita, K.

M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Lee, Y. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.-J.

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11(5), 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. Y.

Lin, J. D.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-D.

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y.

Liu, V.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

McCall, S. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Ou, F.

Pearton, S. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Richter, K.

M. Hentschel and K. Richter, “Quantum chaos in optical systems: the annular billiard,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojo Romeo, P.

Sasaki, T.

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Shinohara, S.

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Wang, S. J.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Wiersig, J.

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, J. L.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

Yang, L.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. D.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-D.

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. Y. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Fujita, K. Inoshita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection laser,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 278–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Che, J.-D. Lin, Y.-Z. Huang, Y.-D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Two-port InGaAsPInP square resonator microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 585–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11(5), 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs–InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, S. J. Choi, and S. J. Choi, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, and Q. Chen, “High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinohara, M. Hentschel, J. Wiersig, T. Sasaki, and T. Harayama, “Ray-wave correspondence in limacon-shaped semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 031801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Hentschel and K. Richter, “Quantum chaos in optical systems: the annular billiard,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic of two-port microdisk; (b) The intensity spectra of two- to four-port microdisk with uniform ports width w of 0.6 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The energy density pattern of TM(2,12) mode in two- (a) and four-port (b) microdisks, and the coupled modes of TM(18,5) and TM(28,2), and TM(18,5) and TM(21,4) in two- (c) and three-port (d) microdisk. The w is 0.6 μm and the amplitude in waveguides is uniformly amplified by a factor of 50.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The Q-factor of TM(2,12) mode versus the width of uniform opened ports w in two to four microdisks; (b) Modes Q-factors near resonant wavelength of 1.607 μm versus the uniform w in two to four-port microdisks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The intensity spectra of (a) two-, (b) three- (solid) and four-port (dashed) microdisk with uniform w of 0.6 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The energy density of (a) TE(0,14) and (b) TE(1, 13) in two-port, and the degenerate states of TE(1, 13) in four-port microdisks (c) and (d) with uniform opened width w of 0.6 μm, the amplitude in waveguides is amplified by a factor of 50; (e) The Q-factors of TE(2,13), TE(3,12), and TE(1,13) in two-, three- and four-port microdisks versus the width of uniform ports w.

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