Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the mechanical tuning of whispering gallery modes in a 40 μm diameter silica microsphere at 10K, over a tuning range of 450 GHz and with a resolution less than 10 MHz. This is achieved by mechanically stretching the stems of a double-stemmed silica microsphere with a commercially available piezo-driven nano-positioner. The large tuning range is made possible by the millimeter long slip-stick motion of the nano-positioner. The ultrafine tuning resolution, corresponding to sub-picometer changes in the sphere diameter, is enabled by the use of relatively long and thin fiber stems, which reduces the effective Poisson ratio of the combined sphere-stem system to approximately 0.0005. The mechanical tuning demonstrated here removes a major obstacle for the use of ultrahigh Q-factor silica microspheres in cavity QED studies of solid state systems and, in particular, cavity QED studies of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Fan, P. Palinginis, S. Lacey, H. Wang, and M. C. Lonergan, “Coupling semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere: a quantum-dot microcavity with extremely high Q factors,” Opt. Lett. 25(21), 1600–1602 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1108–1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1447–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Schietinger, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “One-by-one coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to high-Q modes of an optical microresonator,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3911–3915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and non-linear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137(7-8), 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asai, T.

Awschalom, D. D.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. J.

Barclay, P. E.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

Beausoleil, R.

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1108–1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schietinger, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “One-by-one coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to high-Q modes of an optical microresonator,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3911–3915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and non-linear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137(7-8), 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. E.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. K.

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayan, B.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dinyari, K. N.

Englund, D.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feygelson, T.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foster, D. H.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, K. M. C.

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, K.-M. C.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gibbs, H. M.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and non-linear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137(7-8), 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hatami, F.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, J.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holm, A. M.

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and non-linear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137(7-8), 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, S.

Larsson, M.

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1447–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Löchel, B.

Lonergan, M. C.

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, N.

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mosor, S.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nöckel, J. U.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nüsse, N.

O’Shea, D.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostby, E. P.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palinginis, P.

Park, H.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkins, A. S.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pöllinger, M.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prawer, S.

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, B. C.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, K.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santori, C.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Scherer, A.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schietinger, S.

S. Schietinger, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “One-by-one coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to high-Q modes of an optical microresonator,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3911–3915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, T.

S. Schietinger, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “One-by-one coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to high-Q modes of an optical microresonator,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3911–3915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shields, B.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweet, J.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, H.

Takeuchi, S.

Toubaru, K.

Treussart, F.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velichansky, V. L.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volikov, P. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Frequency tuning of the whispering-gallery modes of silica microspheres for cavity quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 166–168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. F.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

R. J. Barbour, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “A composite microcavity of diamond nanopillar and deformed silica microsphere with enhanced evanescent decay length,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18968–18974 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1447–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fan, P. Palinginis, S. Lacey, H. Wang, and M. C. Lonergan, “Coupling semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere: a quantum-dot microcavity with extremely high Q factors,” Opt. Lett. 25(21), 1600–1602 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, T.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments,” N. J. Phys. 3, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1447–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schietinger, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “One-by-one coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to high-Q modes of an optical microresonator,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3911–3915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 86–90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and non-linear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137(7-8), 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, “Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319(5866), 1062–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) An optical image of a deformed doubled-stemmed silica microsphere. b) Schematic of the experimental setup for mechanically tuning the WGM resonances in a silica microsphere. c) A photo of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) A schematic of the experimental setup used for the free space evanescent excitation and the detection of WGMs in a deformed silica microsphere. b) An example of a WGM resonance used in the experiment. The red curve shows a Lorentzian fit to the resonance with a linewidth of 65 MHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coarse tuning of the WGM resonance with the Attocube nano-positioner operating in a slip-stick (step) mode, with an external voltage per step of 25 volts. The red line is guide to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fine tuning of the WGM resonance with the Attocube nano-positioner operating in a DC-offset mode. (a) 10 V per step. (b) 1 V per step. The red line is guide to the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tuning of the WGM resonance with the Attocube nano-positioner operating in a DC-offset mode, with 0.1 V per step, leading to a tuning resolution better than 10 MHz. The red line is guide to the eye.

Equations (1)

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Δ ν Δ d d ν

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