Abstract

We have investigated the optical properties of tensile-strained germanium photonic wires. The photonic wires patterned by electron beam lithography (50 μm long, 1 μm wide and 500 nm thick) are obtained by growing a n-doped germanium film on a GaAs substrate. Tensile strain is transferred in the germanium layer using a Si3N4 stressor. Tensile strain around 0.4% achieved by the technique corresponds to an optical recombination of tensile-strained germanium involving light hole band around 1690 nm at room temperature. We show that the waveguided emission associated with a single tensile-strained germanium wire increases superlinearly as a function of the illuminated length. A 20% decrease of the spectral broadening is observed as the pump intensity is increased. All these features are signatures of optical gain. A 80 cm−1 modal optical gain is derived from the variable strip length method. This value is accounted for by the calculated gain material value using a 30 band k · p formalism. These germanium wires represent potential building blocks for integration of nanoscale optical sources on silicon.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. R. Conradt and J. Aengenheister, “Minority carrier lifetime in highly doped Ge,” Solid State Commun. 10, 321–323 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, and P. Boucaud, “Band-edge alignment of SiGe/Si quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 195327 (2006).
  26. S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, “Theory of optical gain of Ge-SixGeySn1–x–y quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 249–256 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Allen and G. I. Peters, “Amplified spontaneous emission and external signal amplification in an inverted medium,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2031–2047 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Moller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1–xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Menendez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1–x–ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers.” Nature 421, 241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. O’Gorman, S. L. Chuang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Carrier pinning by mode fluctuations in laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1454–1456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. Klingenstein and H. Schweizer, “Direct gap recombination in germanium at high excitation level and low temperature,” Solid-State Electron. 21, 1371–1374 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. Allen and G. I. Peters, “Amplified spontaneous emission and external signal amplification in an inverted medium,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2031–2047 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. Conradt and J. Aengenheister, “Minority carrier lifetime in highly doped Ge,” Solid State Commun. 10, 321–323 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, “Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475–477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

J. R. Haynes, “New radiation resulting from recombination of holes and electrons in germanium,” Phys. Rev. 98, 1866–1868 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Aengenheister, J.

R. Conradt and J. Aengenheister, “Minority carrier lifetime in highly doped Ge,” Solid State Commun. 10, 321–323 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers.” Nature 421, 241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and G. I. Peters, “Amplified spontaneous emission and external signal amplification in an inverted medium,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2031–2047 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aniel, F.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1–xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

Bertin, H.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosseboeuf, A.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, and P. Boucaud, “Band-edge alignment of SiGe/Si quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 195327 (2006).

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

Bouchier, D.

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer, J.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Moller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chaigneau, M.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-W.

S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, “Theory of optical gain of Ge-SixGeySn1–x–y quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 249–256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1–xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-L.

Cheng, T.-H.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-J.

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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
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M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, and P. Boucaud, “Band-edge alignment of SiGe/Si quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 195327 (2006).

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Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1–xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084518 (2008).
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M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
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R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
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M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
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T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1–xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084518 (2008).
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J. O’Gorman, S. L. Chuang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Carrier pinning by mode fluctuations in laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1454–1456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
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Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
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T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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Lu, J.

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martincic, E.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mauguin, O.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. Menendez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1–x–ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

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O’Gorman, J.

J. O’Gorman, S. L. Chuang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Carrier pinning by mode fluctuations in laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1454–1456 (1993).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Peng, K.-L.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
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M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Moller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 024001 (2010).
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Sagnes, I.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

Sauvage, S.

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, and P. Boucaud, “Band-edge alignment of SiGe/Si quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 195327 (2006).

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
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Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
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W. Klingenstein and H. Schweizer, “Direct gap recombination in germanium at high excitation level and low temperature,” Solid-State Electron. 21, 1371–1374 (1978).
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K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, “Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475–477 (1971).
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Shambat, G.

Sun, X.

Tseng, H.-H.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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Veenstra, S.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
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Vuckovic, J.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
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S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 μm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
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Wu, Y.-R.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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Yam, V.

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
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Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
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Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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Zheng, Y.

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
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Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Moller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 024001 (2010).
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Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211108 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).

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T.-P. Ngo, M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with germanium on insulator obtained by a condensation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241112 (2008).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, “Theory of optical gain of Ge-SixGeySn1–x–y quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 249–256 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k · p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
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Nature (2)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, “Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator,” Opt. Commun. 281, 846–850 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

V. Yam, V. Le Thanh, Y. Zheng, P. Boucaud, and D. Bouchier, “Photoluminescence study of a bimodal size distribution of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 033313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, and P. Boucaud, “Band-edge alignment of SiGe/Si quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 195327 (2006).

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Moller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 024001 (2010).
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R. Conradt and J. Aengenheister, “Minority carrier lifetime in highly doped Ge,” Solid State Commun. 10, 321–323 (1972).
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W. Klingenstein and H. Schweizer, “Direct gap recombination in germanium at high excitation level and low temperature,” Solid-State Electron. 21, 1371–1374 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, N. Gogneau, B. Lamare, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “p and n-type germanium layers grown using iso-butyl germane in a III–V metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4186–4191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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