Abstract

We experimentally show vertically stacked, multi-layer, low-temperature deposited photonics for integration on processed microelectronics. Waveguides, microrings, and crossings are fabricated out of 400°C PECVD Si3N4 and SiO2 in a two layer configuration. Waveguide losses of ~1 dB/cm in the L-band are demonstrated using standard processing and without post-deposition annealing, along with vertically separated intersections showing −0.04 ± 0.002 dB/cross. Finally 3D drop rings are shown with 25 GHz channels and 24 dB extinction ratio.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline Germanium on silicon,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, “Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small-core dimensions for optical communication systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Altieri, G. M. A.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline Germanium on silicon,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline Germanium on silicon,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bao, L.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellutti, P.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

J. Chan, G. Hendry, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “Architectural exploration of chip-scale photonic interconnection network designs using physical-layer analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1305–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

Block, B. A.

Bogaerts, W.

Brown, J. F.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchaillot, L.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chang, P.

Chen, L.

Cianci, E.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline Germanium on silicon,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davids, P. S.

Dumon, P.

Edwards, B.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elshaari, A. W.

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foglietti, V.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Griffin, P.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, G.

Herth, E.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, H.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, “Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small-core dimensions for optical communication systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Jen, A. K. Y.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kompocholis, C.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kopka, P.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, “Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small-core dimensions for optical communication systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Lasri, T.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, B.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Lui, A.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Manipatruni, S.

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. C.

Mattina, M.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, C.-C.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minotti, A.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, K.

Panepucci, R. R.

Pavesi, L.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Polishak, B. M.

Preble, S. F.

Preston, K.

Pucker, G.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quaresima, S.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramey, C.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reshotko, M. R.

Rolland, N.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sbrana, F.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schina, A.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sun, X. W.

Tao, S. H.

Van Thourhout, D.

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, “Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small-core dimensions for optical communication systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wentzlaff, D.

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. L.

Younkin, T. R.

Yu, M. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

D. Wentzlaff, P. Griffin, H. Hoffmann, L. Bao, B. Edwards, C. Ramey, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, J. F. Brown, and A. Agarwal, “On-chip interconnection architecture of the tile processor,” IEEE Micro 27(5), 15–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microelectron. Reliab.

E. Herth, B. Legrand, L. Buchaillot, N. Rolland, and T. Lasri, “Optimization of SiNX:H films deposited by PECVD for reliability of electronic, microsystems and optical applications,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50(8), 1103–1106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline Germanium on silicon,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, “Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small-core dimensions for optical communication systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

E. Cianci, A. Schina, A. Minotti, S. Quaresima, and V. Foglietti, “Dual frequency PECVD silicon nitride for fabrication of CMUTs' membranes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 80–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. J. Conway, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, and A. E. White, “Low-Loss Amorphous Silicon Channel Waveguides for Integrated Photonics,” in Group IV Photonics, 2006. 3rd IEEE International Conference on(2006), pp. 255–257.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vision of a 3D optical network on a microelectronic chip based on deposited optics over CMOS electronics. Multiple bus waveguides are positioned at different vertical layers above a set of an array of microring resonators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication of a 2-layer optical link: (a) deposit SiO2 as BOX; (b) deposit Si3N4 for first guiding layer; (c) pattern/etch L1 waveguides and rings; (d) deposit SiO2 for lateral buffer; (e) polish and planarize SiO2 layer with CMP; (f) deposit SiO2 as spacer; (g) deposit Si3N4 for second guiding layer; (h) pattern/etch L2 waveguides; (i) deposit SiO2 as final cladding layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Microscope image of bus waveguides and microring resonator; (b) vertically coupled structure with TE mode and geometry parameters; (c) false color SEM image of ring cross section; and (d) close-up SEM of silicon nitride waveguide cross section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of fabrication: (a) propagation losses of PECVD Si3N4 waveguides (400 nm x 1000 nm) over wavelength of interest; (b) averaged loss per vertical crossing (800 nm separation); (c) microring resonator (30 µm radius) through and drop port responses from both layers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 CNF GSI PECVD Material Recipes

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