Abstract

Metal-dielectric transitions are important structures that can display a host of optical characteristics including excitation of plasmons. Metal-dielectric discontinuities can furthermore support plasmon excitation without a severe condition on the incident angle of the exciting photons. Using a semi-infinite thin gold film, we study surface plasmon (SP) excitation and the associated electromagnetic near-field distribution by recording the resulting plasmon interference patterns. In particular, we measure interference periods involving SPs at the scanable metal/air interface and the buried metal/glass one. Supported by optical near-field simulations and experiments, we demonstrate that the metal/glass surface plasmon is observable over a wide range of incident angles encompassing values above and below the critical incident angle. As a result, it is shown that scanning near-field microscopy can provide quantitative evaluation of the real part of the buried surface plasmon wavevector.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Gérard, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, “Analysis of the Bloch mode spectra of surface polaritonic crystals in the weak and strong coupling regimes: grating-enhanced transmission at oblique incidence and suppression of SPP radiative losses,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3652–3663 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3652 .
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
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  18. J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2009

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Lévêque, O. J. F. Martin, and J. Weiner, “Transient behavior of surface plasmon polaritons scattered at a subwavelength groove,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by ligh,” Z. Naturforsch. B 23a, 2135–2136 (1968).

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1957

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aourag, H.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bassou, G.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourhis, E.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brucoli, G.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carcenac, F.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

D. Gérard, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, “Analysis of the Bloch mode spectra of surface polaritonic crystals in the weak and strong coupling regimes: grating-enhanced transmission at oblique incidence and suppression of SPP radiative losses,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3652–3663 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3652 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, J. P.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. M.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

Gierak, J.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guizal, B.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Julié, G.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by ligh,” Z. Naturforsch. B 23a, 2135–2136 (1968).

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lereu, A. L.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque, O. J. F. Martin, and J. Weiner, “Transient behavior of surface plasmon polaritons scattered at a subwavelength groove,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Lévêque, O. J. F. Martin, and J. Weiner, “Transient behavior of surface plasmon polaritons scattered at a subwavelength groove,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathet, V.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meriaudeau, F.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mortier, M.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radko, P.

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by ligh,” Z. Naturforsch. B 23a, 2135–2136 (1968).

Renger, J.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

D. Gérard, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, “Analysis of the Bloch mode spectra of surface polaritonic crystals in the weak and strong coupling regimes: grating-enhanced transmission at oblique incidence and suppression of SPP radiative losses,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3652–3663 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3652 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Determination of the spatial extension of the surface-plasmon evanescent field of a silver film with a photon scanning tunnelling microscope,” Phys. Rev. B 48(4), 2680–2683 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

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[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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G. Lévêque, O. J. F. Martin, and J. Weiner, “Transient behavior of surface plasmon polaritons scattered at a subwavelength groove,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gérard, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, “Analysis of the Bloch mode spectra of surface polaritonic crystals in the weak and strong coupling regimes: grating-enhanced transmission at oblique incidence and suppression of SPP radiative losses,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3652–3663 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3652 .
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L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Launching and decoupling surface plasmon via micro-gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4936–4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rep.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. B

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: Theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Lévêque, O. J. F. Martin, and J. Weiner, “Transient behavior of surface plasmon polaritons scattered at a subwavelength groove,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155418 (2007).
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L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153902 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Moduli of the complex amplitude of the nth transmitted waves as a function of the normalized wavevectors. Complex amplitudes are obtained by Differential Method for the structure shown in the inset at θ = 40, θSP and 60° (respectively the blue, red and green curve). The different resonant SP modes are marked with the dashed lines. The peak is due to the incident beam and shift within the modification of the incident beam angle. The inset presents the simulation domain and the assumed boundary conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the experimental setup. A semi-infinite thin gold film of thickness h≈55 nm is vacuum deposited onto a glass prism. The illumination is carried out at various incident angles θ, by a collimated laser beam preliminary linearly polarized. The optical signal is collected with SNOM in shear force mode via the probe and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The inset shows the theoretically estimated plasmon resonance angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field measurements of a semi-infinite thin gold film. (a) and (b) represent respectively the topographic and the corresponding optical images over a scanned region of 20 µm, including the metal/air edge, for an incident angle of 60 degrees. (c) represents a 20 µm optical image over the gold region for an incident angle of 55 degrees. (d) shows the optical image at the plasmon resonance angle θSP for p-polarization. Under the same conditions, (e) shows the measurement for s-polarization. The profiles are made along the dotted lines represented in the respective images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the calculated (curves) and experimentally measured (symbols) interference periods Λ. Λ1 shows the presence of the metal/air SP and becomes infinite at θSP. Interferences measured associated with Λ2 and Λ3 demonstrate the presence of the SP metal/glass for different angles at the scanable interface. Finally, Λ4 allows a calibration of the experimental setup that confirms the sharpness of our measurements.

Equations (5)

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k S P m / d = ω c ε m ε d ε m + ε d
Λ 1 = 2 π / | k 0 n sin ( θ ) Re ( k S P m / a ) | ,
Λ 2 = 2 π / | k 0 n sin ( θ ) Re ( k S P m / g ) | ,
Λ 3 = 2 π / | Re ( k S P m / g k S P m / a ) | ,
Λ 4 = 2 π / | 2 k 0 n sin ( θ ) | ,

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