Abstract

We describe the realization of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system clocked at 100 MHz. The system includes classical postprocessing implemented via software, and is operated over a 12 km standard telecommunication dark fiber in a real-world environment. A time-cost analysis of the sifted, error-corrected, and secret key rates relative to the raw key rate is presented, and the scalability of our implementation with respect to higher secret key rates is discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, pp. 175–179 (1984).
  2. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Duek, N. Ltkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).
  5. A. Lamas-Linares and C. Kurtsiefer, “Breaking a quantum key distribution system through a timing side channel,” Opt. Express 15, 9388 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Jain, C. Wittman, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” arXiv: 1103.2327v2, (2011).
  8. K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. S. Buller, I. Rech, S. D. Cova, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz,” Opt. Express 13, 3015–3020 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
  10. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).
  12. M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Brassard and L. Salvail, “Lecture notes in computer science,” in Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT ’93 (Springer, 1994), vol. 765, pp. 410–23.
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325 (2004).
  15. W. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Dǔsek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, “Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states,” Opt. Commun. 169, 103–108 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330–1333 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” N. J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. In the current setup, the number of sifted key bits to be processed in one execution of error correction is fixed to 10 kb. The time required to collect this data is setup dependent.
  22. C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.
  23. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. J. Rogers, J. C. Bienfang, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, and C. W. Clark, “Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 9, 319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. G. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 8(1), 21–28 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Pearson, “High-speed QKD reconciliation using forward error correction,” Quantum Commun. Meas. Comput. 734(1), 299–302 (2004).
  29. R. C. Agarwal and C. S. Burrus, “Number theoretic transforms to implement fast digital convolution,” Proc. IEEE 63(4), 550–560 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  30. N. Lütkenhaus, “Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Rice and J. Harrington, “Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols,” arxiv:0901.0013 (2009).
  32. R. Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H.-F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution processing,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 012318 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Black, S. Halevi, H. Krawczyk, T. Krovetz, and P. Rogaway, “UMAC: fast and secure message authentication,” Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 99, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,  1666, 79 (1999).
  35. Y. Bo, R. Karri, and D. A. McGrew, “A high-speed hardware architecture for universal message authentication code,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24(10), 1831–1839 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. Levine, R. Reed Taylor, and H. Schmit, “Implementation of near Shannon limit error-correcting codes using reconfigurable hardware,” IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, 217–226 (2000).
  37. M. Fürst, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, D. G. Marangon, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “High speed optical quantum random number generator,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13029–13037 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Two bits are required to determine each polarization state, and four bits allow a random choice of vacuum, decoy and signal states with the desired distribution. Furthermore, some randomness is required for privacy amplification. Note that no random numbers are required at the receiver end due to the passive basis choice.
  39. T. Honjo, A. Uchida, K. Amano, K. Hirano, H. Someya, H. Okumura, K. Yoshimura, P. Davis, and Y. Tokura, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment using fast physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9053–9061 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H.-F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution processing,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 012318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fürst, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, D. G. Marangon, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “High speed optical quantum random number generator,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13029–13037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

T. Honjo, A. Uchida, K. Amano, K. Hirano, H. Someya, H. Okumura, K. Yoshimura, P. Davis, and Y. Tokura, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment using fast physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9053–9061 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Duek, N. Ltkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” N. J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. J. Rogers, J. C. Bienfang, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, and C. W. Clark, “Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 9, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

A. Lamas-Linares and C. Kurtsiefer, “Breaking a quantum key distribution system through a timing side channel,” Opt. Express 15, 9388 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. Bo, R. Karri, and D. A. McGrew, “A high-speed hardware architecture for universal message authentication code,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24(10), 1831–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. S. Buller, I. Rech, S. D. Cova, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz,” Opt. Express 13, 3015–3020 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325 (2004).

D. Pearson, “High-speed QKD reconciliation using forward error correction,” Quantum Commun. Meas. Comput. 734(1), 299–302 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lütkenhaus, “Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Levine, R. Reed Taylor, and H. Schmit, “Implementation of near Shannon limit error-correcting codes using reconfigurable hardware,” IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, 217–226 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. Black, S. Halevi, H. Krawczyk, T. Krovetz, and P. Rogaway, “UMAC: fast and secure message authentication,” Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 99, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,  1666, 79 (1999).

M. Dǔsek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, “Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states,” Opt. Commun. 169, 103–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. C. Agarwal and C. S. Burrus, “Number theoretic transforms to implement fast digital convolution,” Proc. IEEE 63(4), 550–560 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

R. G. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 8(1), 21–28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R. C.

R. C. Agarwal and C. S. Burrus, “Number theoretic transforms to implement fast digital convolution,” Proc. IEEE 63(4), 550–560 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Allacher, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Allaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

Asai, T.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Duek, N. Ltkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, pp. 175–179 (1984).

Bienfang, J. C.

D. J. Rogers, J. C. Bienfang, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, and C. W. Clark, “Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 9, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Black, J.

J. Black, S. Halevi, H. Krawczyk, T. Krovetz, and P. Rogaway, “UMAC: fast and secure message authentication,” Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 99, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,  1666, 79 (1999).

Bo, Y.

Y. Bo, R. Karri, and D. A. McGrew, “A high-speed hardware architecture for universal message authentication code,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24(10), 1831–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, “Lecture notes in computer science,” in Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT ’93 (Springer, 1994), vol. 765, pp. 410–23.
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, pp. 175–179 (1984).

Buller, G. S.

Burrus, C. S.

R. C. Agarwal and C. S. Burrus, “Number theoretic transforms to implement fast digital convolution,” Proc. IEEE 63(4), 550–560 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cai, R. Y. Q.

R. Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerf, N. J.

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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Duek, N. Ltkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
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Fossier, S.

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C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.

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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Leuchs, G.

N. Jain, C. Wittman, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” arXiv: 1103.2327v2, (2011).

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” N. J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
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C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.

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D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325 (2004).

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N. Jain, C. Wittman, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” arXiv: 1103.2327v2, (2011).

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Marhold, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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N. Jain, C. Wittman, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” arXiv: 1103.2327v2, (2011).

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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

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Maurhart, O.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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McGrew, D. A.

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C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

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G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330–1333 (2000).
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D. J. Rogers, J. C. Bienfang, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, and C. W. Clark, “Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 9, 319 (2007).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

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M. Fürst, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, D. G. Marangon, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “High speed optical quantum random number generator,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13029–13037 (2010).
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Pacher, C.

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Page, J.-B.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Poppe, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Duek, N. Ltkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, H.

B. Levine, R. Reed Taylor, and H. Schmit, “Implementation of near Shannon limit error-correcting codes using reconfigurable hardware,” IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, 217–226 (2000).

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Shimizu, K.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Skaar, J.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Someya, H.

Stucki, D.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suda, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Takahashi, S.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Takeoka, M.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Takesue, H.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Tamaki, K.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Themel, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” N. J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.

Tokura, T.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Tokura, Y.

T. Honjo, A. Uchida, K. Amano, K. Hirano, H. Someya, H. Okumura, K. Yoshimura, P. Davis, and Y. Tokura, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment using fast physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9053–9061 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Tomita, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Townsend, P. D.

Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trinkler, P.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Tsurumaru, T.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Tualle-Brouri, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Uchida, A.

Uchikoga, S.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Vannel, F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Wakui, K.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Walenta, N.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Fürst, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, D. G. Marangon, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “High speed optical quantum random number generator,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13029–13037 (2010).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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N. Jain, C. Wittman, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” arXiv: 1103.2327v2, (2011).

Wittmann, C.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” arXiv:1103.3566 (2010).

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
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Zbinden, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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In the current setup, the number of sifted key bits to be processed in one execution of error correction is fixed to 10 kb. The time required to collect this data is setup dependent.

C. Healey, I. Lucio-Martinez, M. R. E. Lamont, X. F. Mo, and W. Tittel, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP single-photon detector at 200 MHz gate rate,” in preparation.

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Two bits are required to determine each polarization state, and four bits allow a random choice of vacuum, decoy and signal states with the desired distribution. Furthermore, some randomness is required for privacy amplification. Note that no random numbers are required at the receiver end due to the passive basis choice.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the quantum frames. a: generation of bit and basis information to encode qubits; b: data transfer; c: generation of the classical control frame; d: deadtime, e: generation and transmission of quantum data (qubits); f: deadtime, g: processing time, h: time for polarization control (when required).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the optical and some electronic components of our QKD system. LD: laser diode; ATT: attenuator; IM: intensity modulator; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PM: phase modulator; BS: beam splitter; PD: photo diode; PC: polarization controller; SPD: single photon detector; CPU: central processing unit (personal computer); FPGA: field programmable gate array; I/O: input/output interface. See text and [20] for more details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sifted and error corrected key rates as a function of the raw key rate. The inset shows the shaded area in more detail.

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