Abstract

Microphotonic sensors have been actively studied with increasing demands for label-free biosensing in medical diagnoses and life sciences. For high-throughput and low-cost sensing, a high sensitivity is crucial for eliminating the pre-concentration process, while a simple setup of sensors is also desirable. This paper demonstrates a super-sensitivity for protein, which satisfies these requirements. The key device is a photonic crystal nanolaser, in particular with a nanoslot. Even using a simple setup, the nanolaser achieves an extraordinary-low detection limit for BSA protein, i.e. 255 fM on an average, which cannot be explained by its bulk index sensitivity. The specific adsorption of the protein is observed only around the nanoslot with strong laser intensity. This suggests that the super-sensitivity arises from the effective trapping of protein in the nanoslot.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Schweitzer and S. F. Kingsmore, “Measuring proteins on microarrays,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13(1), 14–19 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4530–4535 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).
  12. S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Dündar, E. C. I. Ryckebosch, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, L. J. van Ijzendoorn, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Sensitivities of InGaAsP photonic crystal membrane nanocavities to hole refractive index,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4049–4056 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Kita, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa and T. Baba, "Label-free biosensing utilizing ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper IMB3.
  16. T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).
  21. C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. J. Butt, K. Graf, and M. Kappl, Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces (Wiley-VCH, 2003). p. 195.
  24. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Piazza, “‘Thermal forces’: colloids in temperature gradients,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(38), S4195–S4211 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. W. C. Law, K. T. Yong, A. Baev, R. Hu, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensing: application of gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19041–19046 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y. H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dündar, E. C. I. Ryckebosch, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, L. J. van Ijzendoorn, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Sensitivities of InGaAsP photonic crystal membrane nanocavities to hole refractive index,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4049–4056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

W. C. Law, K. T. Yong, A. Baev, R. Hu, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensing: application of gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19041–19046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y. H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

2005 (2)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. Piazza, “‘Thermal forces’: colloids in temperature gradients,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(38), S4195–S4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Schweitzer and S. F. Kingsmore, “Measuring proteins on microarrays,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13(1), 14–19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arita, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Baets, R.

Baev, A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bitz, G. G.

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

Borel, P. I.

Brown, P. O.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burr, G. W.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bynum, M. A.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cavaco-Paulo, A.

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

Chandra, H.

S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, F.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. W.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vos, K.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRisi, J. L.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Falco, A.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driskell, J.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dündar, M. A.

Erickson, D.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esener, S.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, C.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grot, A.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grubisha, D. S.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hachuda, S.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, R.

Hwang, S. Y.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Karouta, F.

Keng, D.

M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. P.

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kingsmore, S. F.

B. Schweitzer and S. F. Kingsmore, “Measuring proteins on microarrays,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13(1), 14–19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kita, S.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Kjems, J.

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Lashkari, D. A.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

Lee, B. Y.

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. R.

Lee, P.-T.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

Lin, P. T.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipert, R. J.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. Y.

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

Lu, T. W.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luebbert, C. C.

Ma, R.

Mandal, S.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCusker, J. H.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miskelly, G. M.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakada, T.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Namath, A. F.

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, S.

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noto, M.

M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

Nozaki, K.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

O'Faolain, L.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, S.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Pacholski, C.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. Y.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piazza, R.

R. Piazza, “‘Thermal forces’: colloids in temperature gradients,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(38), S4195–S4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porter, M. D.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

Qiu, Y. M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S.

S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robotti, K. M.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryckebosch, E. C. I.

Sailor, M. J.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

Sartor, M.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schacht, E.

Scherer, A.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, B.

B. Schweitzer and S. F. Kingsmore, “Measuring proteins on microarrays,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13(1), 14–19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serey, X.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shigemori, K.

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shioya, T.

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

Sim, S. J.

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sio, K.-U.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skivesen, N.

Sousa, F.

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

Srinivas, P. R.

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sun, Y. Z.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teramae, N.

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Têtu, A.

Vachon, M.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijden, R. W.

van Ijzendoorn, L. J.

Verma, M.

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, H.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

White, I. M.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokobori, T.

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yong, K. T.

Zhao, Y. M.

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zhu, H. Y.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. P. Kim, B. Y. Lee, S. Hong, and S. J. Sim, “Ultrasensitive carbon nanotube-based biosensors using antibody-binding fragments,” Anal. Biochem. 381(2), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H. Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels,” Anal. Chem. 75(21), 5936–5943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K.-U. Sio, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of protein orientation on the silica microsphere surface using transverse electric/transverse magnetic whispering gallery modes,” Biophys. J. 92(12), 4466–4472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. Ray, H. Chandra, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechniques in proteomics: current status, promises and challenges,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2389–2401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (1)

P. R. Srinivas, M. Verma, Y. M. Zhao, and S. Srivastava, “Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery,” Clin. Chem. 48(8), 1160–1169 (2002).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

B. Schweitzer and S. F. Kingsmore, “Measuring proteins on microarrays,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13(1), 14–19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Food Technol. Biotechnol. (1)

C. Silva, F. Sousa, G. G. Bitz, and A. Cavaco-Paulo, “Chemical modifications on proteins using glutaraldehyde,” Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42, 51–56 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots—design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.(to be published).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

R. Piazza, “‘Thermal forces’: colloids in temperature gradients,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(38), S4195–S4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Chem. (1)

K. Shigemori, S. Nishizawa, T. Yokobori, T. Shioya, and N. Teramae, “Selective binding of very hydrophilic H2PO4- anion by a hydrogen-bonding receptor adsorbed at the 1,2-dichloroethane-water interface,” N. J. Chem. 26(9), 1102–1104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. A. Lashkari, J. L. DeRisi, J. H. McCusker, A. F. Namath, C. Gentile, S. Y. Hwang, P. O. Brown, and R. W. Davis, “Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(24), 13057–13062 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

S. Zlatanovic, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. M. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, E. Chow, K. M. Robotti, G. W. Burr, S. Esener, and A. Grot, “Photonic crystal microcavity sensor for ultracompact monitoring of reaction kinetics and protein concentration,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 141(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Kita, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa and T. Baba, "Label-free biosensing utilizing ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper IMB3.

H. J. Butt, K. Graf, and M. Kappl, Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces (Wiley-VCH, 2003). p. 195.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NS nanolaser. (a) Schematic of whole structure with bio-molecules adsorbed, and modal energy distribution calculated by 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. (b) Magnified cross-section of NS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Adsorption of BSA on device surface. (a) Schematic procedure. (b) Observation after adsorption process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Biosensing characteristics. (a) Laser spectral shift before and after BSA adsorption. (b) Slot width dependence of wavelength shift. Dashed lines denote averages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on BSA concentration. (a) Laser spectra for different concentrations. (b) Wavelength shift with concentration. Circular plots show experimental data averaged over many devices with w NS = 30 – 60 nm. Fitting curves are obtained from Eq. (1). Error bars for devices without NS denote temporal fluctuations due to the broadened spectrum. For NS devices, temporal fluctuations are negligible.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence on pump power in the low-concentration regime (C = 1 pM). (a) SEM image around the NS after the measurement. (b) Spectral shift for several devices.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting parameters and DL for solid lines in Fig. 4(b)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance of label-free biosensors

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ s = Δ λ max1 K A 1 C 1 + K A 1 C + Δ λ max2 K A 2 C 1 + K A 2 C + Δ λ max3 K A 3 C 1 + K A 3 C
DL = K Ai 1 ( Δ λ w Δ λ maxi Δ λ w )
U trap = k B T ln ( K A 1 / K A 2 )
U trap = D 3 16 ( n p / n w ) 2 1 ( n p / n w ) 2 + 2 ξ Q P ω V m

Metrics