Abstract

Wafer-level optics is considered as a cost-effective approach to miniaturized cameras, because fabrication and assembly are carried out for thousands of lenses in parallel. However, in most cases the micro-optical fabrication process is not mature enough to reach the required accuracy of the optical elements, which may have complex profiles and sags in the mm-scale. Contrary, the creation of microlens arrays is well controllable so that we propose a multi aperture system called ”Optical Cluster Eye” which is based on conventional micro-optical fabrication techniques. The proposed multi aperture camera consists of many optical channels each transmitting a segment of the whole field of view. The design of the system provides the stitching of the partial images, so that a seamless image is formed and a commercially available image sensor can be used. The system can be fabricated on wafer-level with high yield due to small aperture diameters and low sags. The realized optics has a lateral size of 2.2 × 2.9 mm2, a total track length of 1.86 mm, and captures images at VGA video resolution.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

A. Garza-Rivera and F. J. Renero-Carrillo, “Design of an ultra-thin objective lens based on superposition compound eye,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300D (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Lindlein, “Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Bräuer, “Polymer UV-moulding for micro-optical systems and OlE-integration,” Proc. SPIE 4179, 137–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1980 (1)

Anderson, R. H.

Bellman, R. H.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bräuer, A.

Brückner, A.

Connell, G. A. N.

Dannberg, P.

Druart, G.

Duparré, J.

Durbin, J. A.

Eisner, M.

Fendler, M.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, UK Patent 541753 (1940).

Garza-Rivera, A.

A. Garza-Rivera and F. J. Renero-Carrillo, “Design of an ultra-thin objective lens based on superposition compound eye,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guérineau, N.

Haïdar, R.

Haselbeck, S.

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hembd-Sölner, C.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawazu, M.

Lama, W.

Leitel, R.

Lindlein, N.

N. Lindlein, “Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mann, G.

P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Bräuer, “Polymer UV-moulding for micro-optical systems and OlE-integration,” Proc. SPIE 4179, 137–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matthes, A.

Ogura, Y.

Popovic, Z. D.

Primot, J.

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Radtke, D.

Reimann, A.

Renero-Carrillo, F. J.

A. Garza-Rivera and F. J. Renero-Carrillo, “Design of an ultra-thin objective lens based on superposition compound eye,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rommeluère, S.

Savander, P.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Schreiber, H.

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P.

Schwider, J.

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

Sprague, R. A.

Stevens, R. F.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, K.

Streibl, N.

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taboury, J.

Thétas, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Völkel, R.

Wagner, L.

P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Bräuer, “Polymer UV-moulding for micro-optical systems and OlE-integration,” Proc. SPIE 4179, 137–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weible, K. J.

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wippermann, F.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Lindlein, “Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Haselbeck, H. Schreiber, J. Schwider, and N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Bräuer, “Polymer UV-moulding for micro-optical systems and OlE-integration,” Proc. SPIE 4179, 137–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Garza-Rivera and F. J. Renero-Carrillo, “Design of an ultra-thin objective lens based on superposition compound eye,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, “The moiré magnifier,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133–142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Gabor, UK Patent 541753 (1940).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

OmniVision: OVM7690; 640 × 480 CameraCube™ device; product brief, Version 1.0 (September2010).

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