Abstract

We demonstrate a vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) mode for solving low transmittance and high driving voltage problems in conventional in-plane-switching (IPS) PS-BPLC modes. By controlling the ray directions of incident beams by means of two prism sheets attached to the top and bottom substrates, continuous grayscale properties can be achieved with a vertical field, where the transmittance of the proposed structure can be increased to become twice as high as that of a IPS PS-BPLC cell, and its driving voltage can also be lowered by about 20 V. With the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC mode, the hysteresis problem of the IPS PS-BPLC mode can also be solved due to a reduction of the electric field required to achieve sufficient field-induced retardation.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).
  9. Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Lu, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Effect of IPS cell structure on the electro-optical property of a room-temperature blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 1608–1610 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Mori, “The wide view (WV) film for enhancing the field of view of LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 179–186 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lu, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Effect of IPS cell structure on the electro-optical property of a room-temperature blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 1608–1610 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Mori, “The wide view (WV) film for enhancing the field of view of LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 179–186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).

1998

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-M.

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-C.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

L. Lu, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Effect of IPS cell structure on the electro-optical property of a room-temperature blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 1608–1610 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. M.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eom, T. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).

Fan, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, J. B.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseba, Y.

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.-H.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hur, S.-T.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-Y.

L. Lu, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Effect of IPS cell structure on the electro-optical property of a room-temperature blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 1608–1610 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, T.

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, B. G.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.-W.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W. S.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, H. Higuchi, Y. Haseba, and T. Iwata, “Fast electro-optical switching in polymer-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases for display application,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 38(1), 1737–1740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-R.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-K.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. C.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, O.-J.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, and T. Y. Eom, “Analysis of light efficiency in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 35, S1111–S1114 (1999).

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-H.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.

L. Lu, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Effect of IPS cell structure on the electro-optical property of a room-temperature blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 1608–1610 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, H.

H. Mori, “The wide view (WV) film for enhancing the field of view of LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 179–186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-J.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-W.

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, K.-W. Park, D.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 298–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, S.-T.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoykovich, M. P.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, N.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-T.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xianyu, H.

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Kikuchi, Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and H. Higuchi, “Optically isotropic nano-structured liquid crystal composites for display applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.-I.

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.

S. Yoon, M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, W. S. Kang, and G.-D. Lee, “Analysis of electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal driven by in-plane and fringe electric field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 529(1), 95–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, F.-C.

C.-Y. Fan, C.-T. Wang, T.-H. Lin, F.-C. Yu, T.-H. Huang, C.-Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. J.

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “The world’s first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.-M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science 273(5273), 347–349 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. W. Choi, S.-I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optic of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

L. Rao, H.-C. Cheng, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section view of the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cell structure with two prism sheets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Δn induced/λ as a function of the square of electric field measured at RT, where the slope indicates the Kerr constant. (b) Experimental set-up for measurement of the transmittance of the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cell according to the tilting angle (θt ) of the cell. (c) The relation between the incident angle (θi ) to the PS-BPLC layer, and θt of the cell substrate. (d) V-T curves of the PS-BPLC cells (d = 4 μm, 6 μm, and 10 μm) according to θi variation, where the transmittance is measured with increasing applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagrams showing the steps involved in fabrication of the prism sheets, and SEM images of the fabricated NOA89 prism sheets: (a) fabrication steps for the prism sheet (θp = 54.7°, θi = 24°) using imprinting process with PDMS mold replicated from anisotropic wet-etched Si (100) surface, (b) fabrication steps for production of a higher θp = 64° (and thus higher θi = 28°) of the prism sheet obtained by compressing the elastomeric PDMS mold.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittances of vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cells (d = 10 μm in both cells) without/with prism sheets, measured with increasing applied voltage. The V-T curve of the PS-BPLC cell without a prism sheet was measured under an oblique incidence condition of θi = 24°. The V-T curve of the PS-BPLC cell with two prism sheets (θp = 54.7°) was measured under a normal incidence condition, where the θi to the BPLC layer was about 24°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Light transmission properties of PS-BPLC cells (d = 10 μm in both cells), depending on the viewing direction, where Sample I and Sample II are the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cells with one prism sheet (θp = 54.7°) and two prism sheets (θp = 54.7°), respectively. The bottom images are the samples’ POM LC textures with an applied voltage of 70 V. (b) Transmitted light intensities of Sample I and Sample II at an applied voltage of 70 V according to the viewing angle along the grating vector direction of the prism sheets, where the normally incident beam is used for a backlight.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) V-T curves of vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cells (d = 10 μm in both cells) with two prism sheets, where the line with triangles, and the line with squares denote the V-T curves of the cells with the prism sheets with a lower (θp = 54.7°), and a higher (θp = 64°) prism angle, respectively. The line with circles denotes the V-T curve of a conventional IPS PS-BPLC cell, in which the spacing and the width of the patterned in-plane electrodes are 3 μm and 4 μm, respectively, and the cell gap is 3 μm. (b) The top and the bottom images show the POM LC textures of a vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cell (d = 10 μm) with two prism sheets (θp = 64°) and those of an IPS PS-BPLC cell, respectively, where the applied voltages were both 64 V. (c) The field-induced Δneff and Δneff d for the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cells with the prism sheets with a lower (θp = 54.7°), and a higher (θp = 64°) prism angle according to an applied voltage, where Δneff and Δneff d are obtained from the result of Fig. 6(a) with Eq. (2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hysteresis measurements of vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC cell (d = 10 μm) with two prism sheets (θp = 64°), and of IPS PS-BPLC cell (electrode spacing = 3 μm, electrode width = 4 μm, cell gap = 3 μm).

Equations (2)

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Δ n ( E ) = λ K E 2 ,
T sin 2 ( π Δ n e f f ( θ i , E ) d ( θ i ) λ ) ,

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