Abstract

A modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on an array of electrically controlled zone plates made of ferroelectric domains is presented. The camera used for image acquisition is also used for wavefront sensing. An experimental simulation of the use of this sensor to enhance astronomical images obtained by “Lucky Imaging” is presented.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Mackay, “High resolution imaging with large ground-based telescopes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(11), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (2)

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328(6127), 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

Allen, J. G.

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

Andersen, M. I.

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ares, J.

Arines, J.

Bailey, J.

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. E.

N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bará, S.

Castle, R. M.

Climent, V.

Cox, G. C.

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cudney, R. S.

Dainty, J. C.

Durán, V.

Escamilla, H. M.

Fan, Y. H.

Fita, P.

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Gardner, C.

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328(6127), 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hennings, D. R.

Hough, J. H.

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Lancis, J.

Law, N. M.

N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, C.

C. Mackay, “High resolution imaging with large ground-based telescopes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(11), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, C. D.

N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazurek, L.

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Migdal, P.

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, K. A.

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

Prado, P.

Radzewicz, C.

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Ríos, L. A.

Schmutz, L.

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

Seifert, L.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

Smith, A.

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tajahuerce, E.

Thompson, L.

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328(6127), 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. A.

Tiziani, H. J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tubbs, R. N.

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vankevics, A.

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

Wilson, R. W.

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wormell, D.

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

Wu, S. T.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

P. Migdał, P. Fita, C. Radzewicz, and Ł. Mazurek, “Wavefront sensor with Fresnel zone plates for use in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 76(3), 229–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

J. E. Baldwin, R. N. Tubbs, G. C. Cox, C. D. Mackay, R. W. Wilson, and M. I. Andersen, “Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 368(1), L1–L4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaging in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446(2), 739–745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

A. Smith, J. Bailey, J. H. Hough, and S. Lee, “An investigation of lucky imaging techniques,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398(4), 2069–2073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328(6127), 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

C. Mackay, “High resolution imaging with large ground-based telescopes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(11), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. G. Allen, A. Vankevics, D. Wormell, and L. Schmutz, “Digital wavefront sensor for astronomical image compensation,” Proc. SPIE 739, 124–128 (1987).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1638 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. (a) No aberration. (b) With aberration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modified Shack-Hartmann sensor. (a) No voltage is applied; the setup is used to obtain an image. (b) Voltage is applied; the setup is used as a wavefront sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor-mode and imaging-mode results. Left: pictures obtained in the sensor mode; middle: centroids obtained from the pictures on the left; right: pictures obtained in the imaging mode. (a) With negligible distortion; (b) with moderate distortion ( σ x = 4.1  pixels , σ y = 7.4  pixels ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the standard deviations of the centroid locations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-frame excerpts from a video (Media 1) where each frame is the result of adding the images according to the σ max of the associated sensor-mode pictures. (a) Maximum allowed σ max : 0.37 pixels. (b) Maximum allowed σ max : 1.0 pixels. (c) Maximum allowed σ max : 4.0 pixels. (d) Maximum allowed σ max : 13 pixels.

Equations (3)

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r m = f 0 λ 2 ( 2 m 1 ) ,
Δ n = ± 1 2 n o 3 r 13 V d ,
r c = j = 1 N r j I j j = 1 N I j , ,

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