Abstract

Constructing micro/nanostructures based on TiO2 has attracted increasing attention due to the excellent properties of TiO2. In this study, we report a simple method to directly fabricate TiO2 micro-devices, including Fresnel lens, gear structures and suspended beams only by laser direct writing and selective-etching processing. This route shows great potential in fabricating TiO2 structures for micro-electro-mechanical systems, diffractive optical elements and bio-applications, owing to its maskless process, low cost, and flexible dry/wet alternative etching treatment.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. F. Guo, Z. Zhang, S. H. Cao, and Q. Liu, “Laser direct writing of nanoreliefs in Sn nanofilms,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2820–2822 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

A. Kiani, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Direct patterning of silicon oxide on Si-substrate induced by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1872–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hong and Y. J. Kim, “Self-Cleaning Effect of Solid Immersion Lens Using Photocatalyst TiO2 Film for Near-Field Recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5939–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chang, P. H. Tsao, and P. K. Wei, “Sub-100 nm photolithography using TE-polarized waves in transparent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 71–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aimi, M. F.

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Algatti, M. A.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauerdick, S.

Bian, Z.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottani, C. E.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S.

C. F. Guo, S. Cao, P. Jiang, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Fan, Y. Wang, W. Xu, Z. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “Grayscale photomask fabricated by laser direct writing in metallic nano-films,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19981–19987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S. H.

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Guo, Z. Zhang, S. H. Cao, and Q. Liu, “Laser direct writing of nanoreliefs in Sn nanofilms,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2820–2822 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casari, C. S.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. M.

Chang, W. L.

Chen, Z. X.

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Chiang, H. P.

Chin, C.

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. H.

Chun, C.

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Comte, P.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz Orea, A.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, F.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Divitini, G.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Z.

X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ducati, C.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Ganainy, R.

Fan, Y.

Fang, Y.

Feng, H.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graetzel, M.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C. F.

Guo, L. J.

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. G.

H. G. Hong and Y. J. Kim, “Self-Cleaning Effect of Solid Immersion Lens Using Photocatalyst TiO2 Film for Near-Field Recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5939–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. C.

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

Jiménez Pérez, J. L.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

Juodkazis, S.

Kiani, A.

Kim, D. Y.

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

H. G. Hong and Y. J. Kim, “Self-Cleaning Effect of Solid Immersion Lens Using Photocatalyst TiO2 Film for Near-Field Recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5939–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koudriachov, V.

Kumar, R.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, S. S.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. P.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li Bassi, A.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, E.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Liu, X.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucas, B. D.

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, N. C.

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, A.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Matsubara, T.

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J. J.

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, E. R.

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peto, L.

Qiu, J.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. P.

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L. M.

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, T. L.

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosa, L.

Russo, V.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakanaka, P. H.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, F.

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tafen, N.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, Y.

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

Tay, A.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teh, W.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teoh, K.

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B. J.

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

Tsao, P. H.

Tseng, M. L.

Venkatakrishnan, K.

von Freymann, G.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. X.

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. S.

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P. K.

Wu, N.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, L.

Zhang, D.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C. F. Guo, S. Cao, P. Jiang, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Fan, Y. Wang, W. Xu, Z. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “Grayscale photomask fabricated by laser direct writing in metallic nano-films,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19981–19987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, Z.

Zhao, Z. S.

X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. G.

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography Based Approach for Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly Oriented Plasmonic Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

Q. Zheng, B. Zhou, J. Bai, L. Li, Z. Jin, J. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cai, and X. Zhu, “Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 1044–1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline, pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

Z. X. Chen, W. X. Wang, Y. Takao, T. Matsubara, and L. M. Ren, “Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO2 layer before and after hot water treatment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(16), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, P. H. Sakanaka, M. A. Algatti, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and A. Cruz Orea, “One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 709–714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Bian, G. Li, Y. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Aerosol-spraying synthesis of SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and conversion to porous TiO2 and single-crystalline TiOF2.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (36): 5394–5396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. Wu, J. Wang, N. Tafen, H. Wang, J. G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, and A. Manivannan, “Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) (101) nanobelts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(19), 6679–6685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

E. R. Parker, B. J. Thibeault, M. F. Aimi, M. P. Rao, and N. C. MacDonald, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), C675–C683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. S. Kim, C. Chun, J. C. Hong, and D. Y. Kim, “Well-ordered TiO2 nanostructures fabricated using surface relief gratings on polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(4), 370–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. S. Wang, C. F. Guo, S. H. Cao, J. J. Miao, T. L. Ren, and Q. Liu, “Controllable fabrication of super-resolution nanocrater arrays by laser direct writing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 7134–7137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. G. Hong and Y. J. Kim, “Self-Cleaning Effect of Solid Immersion Lens Using Photocatalyst TiO2 Film for Near-Field Recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5939–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Sauvage, F. Di Fonzo, A. Li Bassi, C. S. Casari, V. Russo, G. Divitini, C. Ducati, C. E. Bottani, P. Comte, and M. Graetzel, “Hierarchical TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2562–2567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Liao, W. Teh, K. Teoh, A. Tay, H. Feng, and R. Kumar, “Etching control of benzocyclobutene in CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 plasmas with thick photoresist and titanium masks functions and estimating reflectance,” Thin Solid Films 504(1-2), 252–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) OM and SEM images of grating lines fabricated at 3-13 mW with a step of 1 mW, for 1 ms pulse width. The inset in (b) shows that the surface of the grating line (4 mW) is very smooth. (c) AFM image of grating lines fabricated at 3-9 mW with a step of 1 mW, for 1 ms pulse width. (d) The dependence of both line width and line height on laser writing power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micro-Raman spectra of the oxide tracks with increasing laser power at 1 ms pulse width. The bands centered at 442 and 612 cm−1 correspond to the rutile phase of TiO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM images of grating lines and (c) concentric rings fabricated at 4 mW with 1 ms pulse width by LDW. (b) and (d)The corresponding AFM images after etching for 4 minutes are shown. The insets of panels (a) and (b) show that the line width and height before and after RIE, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical microscopy images of Fresnel lens fabricated by LDW at 4 mW with 1 ms pulse width and RIE treated for 4 minutes: (a) morphology image; (b) focusing image; (c) a letter “A” imaged through the lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of MEMS structures fabricated by LDW at 4 mW with 1 ms pulse width and wet etching for 5 min: (a) a gear structure; (b) the centre part of (a), showing the smooth surface of product obtained; (c) completely suspended TiO2 beams with two bases.

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