Abstract

We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. P. Drexler and P. Fiala, “Methods for High-Power EM Pulse Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(7), 1006–1011 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Rashleigh, “Magnetic-field sensing with a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 6(1), 19–21 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Kanwisher and K. Lawson, “Electromagnetic flow sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20(2), 174–182 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. S. Sriram and S. A. Kingsley, “Sensitivity enhancements to photonic electric field sensor,” in SPIE Photonic West, (SPIE, 2004), 143–152.
  6. K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).
  7. E. M. Zolotov and R. Tavlykaev, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulator with a linearized modulation characteristic,” Quantum Electron. 18(3), 401–402 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Becker, “Circuit effect in LiNbO3 channel-waveguide modulators,” Opt. Lett. 10(8), 417–419 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. F. Tavlykaev and R. V. Ramaswamy, “Highly linear Y-fed directional coupler modulator with low intermodulation distortion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(2), 282–291 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wang and B.-S. Lee, “C.-Y. Lin, D. An, and R. T. Chen, “Electroptic Polymer Linear Modulators Based on Multiple-Domain Y-Fed Directional Coupler,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 28, 1670–1676 (2010).
  12. B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, R. Dinu, and R. T. Chen, “Linearized electro-optic modulators based on a two-section Y-fed directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6485–6488 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Lee, C. Lin, X. Wang, R. T. Chen, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Bias-free electro-optic polymer-based two-section Y-branch waveguide modulator with 22 dB linearity enhancement,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3277–3279 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. C. Gupta and I. J. Bahl, Microstrip lines and slotlines (Artech House 1996).

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and B.-S. Lee, “C.-Y. Lin, D. An, and R. T. Chen, “Electroptic Polymer Linear Modulators Based on Multiple-Domain Y-Fed Directional Coupler,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 28, 1670–1676 (2010).

B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, R. Dinu, and R. T. Chen, “Linearized electro-optic modulators based on a two-section Y-fed directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6485–6488 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Drexler and P. Fiala, “Methods for High-Power EM Pulse Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(7), 1006–1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. M. Zolotov and R. Tavlykaev, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulator with a linearized modulation characteristic,” Quantum Electron. 18(3), 401–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

1975 (1)

J. Kanwisher and K. Lawson, “Electromagnetic flow sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20(2), 174–182 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, F.

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

Bray, R. C.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Conrad, G.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, D.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

Drexler, P.

P. Drexler and P. Fiala, “Methods for High-Power EM Pulse Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(7), 1006–1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiala, P.

P. Drexler and P. Fiala, “Methods for High-Power EM Pulse Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(7), 1006–1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hernday, P.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, C.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jungerman, R. L.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kanwisher, J.

J. Kanwisher and K. Lawson, “Electromagnetic flow sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20(2), 174–182 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, R.

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, N.

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, K.

J. Kanwisher and K. Lawson, “Electromagnetic flow sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20(2), 174–182 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.-S.

X. Wang and B.-S. Lee, “C.-Y. Lin, D. An, and R. T. Chen, “Electroptic Polymer Linear Modulators Based on Multiple-Domain Y-Fed Directional Coupler,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 28, 1670–1676 (2010).

Lin, C.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, C.-Y.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

McQuate, D. J.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Rashleigh, S. C.

Salomaa, K.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R.

E. M. Zolotov and R. Tavlykaev, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulator with a linearized modulation characteristic,” Quantum Electron. 18(3), 401–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R. F.

Tokuda, M.

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

Wang, A. X.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and B.-S. Lee, “C.-Y. Lin, D. An, and R. T. Chen, “Electroptic Polymer Linear Modulators Based on Multiple-Domain Y-Fed Directional Coupler,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 28, 1670–1676 (2010).

B. Lee, C. Lin, X. Wang, R. T. Chen, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Bias-free electro-optic polymer-based two-section Y-branch waveguide modulator with 22 dB linearity enhancement,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3277–3279 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotov, E. M.

E. M. Zolotov and R. Tavlykaev, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulator with a linearized modulation characteristic,” Quantum Electron. 18(3), 401–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zurakowski, M. P.

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

P. Drexler and P. Fiala, “Methods for High-Power EM Pulse Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(7), 1006–1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

N. Kuwabara, K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, and F. Amemiya, “Development and analysis of electric field sensor using LiNbO3 optical modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 34(4), 391–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Tajima, R. Kobayashi, N. Kuwabara, and M. Tokuda, “Optical Fibers and Devices. Development of Optical Isotropic E-Field Sensor Operating More than 10GHz Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 961–968 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

R. L. Jungerman, C. Johnsen, D. J. McQuate, K. Salomaa, M. P. Zurakowski, R. C. Bray, G. Conrad, D. Cropper, and P. Hernday, “High-speed optical modulator for application in instrumentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(9), 1363–1370 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Tavlykaev and R. V. Ramaswamy, “Highly linear Y-fed directional coupler modulator with low intermodulation distortion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(2), 282–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Journalism (1)

X. Wang and B.-S. Lee, “C.-Y. Lin, D. An, and R. T. Chen, “Electroptic Polymer Linear Modulators Based on Multiple-Domain Y-Fed Directional Coupler,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 28, 1670–1676 (2010).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

J. Kanwisher and K. Lawson, “Electromagnetic flow sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20(2), 174–182 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Zolotov and R. Tavlykaev, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulator with a linearized modulation characteristic,” Quantum Electron. 18(3), 401–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. S. Sriram and S. A. Kingsley, “Sensitivity enhancements to photonic electric field sensor,” in SPIE Photonic West, (SPIE, 2004), 143–152.

K. C. Gupta and I. J. Bahl, Microstrip lines and slotlines (Artech House 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the photonic electric field sensor based on domain inverted E-O polymer Y-fed directional coupler (b) Cross sectional view of the directional coupler waveguide with equivalent domain inversion

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Testing setup for the photonic E-field sensor with the microstrip line that generate vertical electric field, polarization maintaining single mode fiber for input coupling, and single mode fiber for output coupling. The microstrip line is connected to a RF source with an SMA cable on one end and terminated with a 50ohm terminator on the other end to avoid reflection

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The response of the photonic E-field sensor with 20dBm RF input power at 1GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response from the photonic E-field sensor as a function of the electric field.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The photonic E-field sensor shows a noise free dynamic range of 70dB.

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