Abstract

A nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with a 40 nm-thick GaAs absorbing layer has been studied numerically and experimentally. A gold nanowire array is the top mirror of a Fabry-Perot cavity and forms interdigitated Schottky contacts. Nearly perfect absorption is achieved in TE polarization. It is shown numerically that the gold nanowire array induces light absorption in GaAs nanowires with tiny sections (100 nm × 40 nm). High external quantum efficiency (η > 40 %) is demonstrated.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Agarwal and C. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowires: optics and optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. A 85, 209–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1521–1523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. W. McFarland and J. Tang, “A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission,” Nature 421, 616–618 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E 14, 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Y. Chou, M. Y. Liu, and P. B. Fischer, “Tera-hertz GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with 25 nm finger spacing and finger width,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 477–479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

R. Agarwal and C. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowires: optics and optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. A 85, 209–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antoszewski, J.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bardou, N.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. S.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambril, E.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, M. Y. Liu, and P. B. Fischer, “Tera-hertz GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with 25 nm finger spacing and finger width,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 477–479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1521–1523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desieres, Y.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Plasmon-based photosensors comprising a very thin semiconducting region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181104 (2009).

Dupuis, C.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Plasmon-based photosensors comprising a very thin semiconducting region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181104 (2009).

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraone, L.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferlazzo, L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P. B.

S. Y. Chou, M. Y. Liu, and P. B. Fischer, “Tera-hertz GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with 25 nm finger spacing and finger width,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 477–479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujikata, T.

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E 14, 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishi, T.

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laux, E.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le Perchec, J.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Plasmon-based photosensors comprising a very thin semiconducting region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181104 (2009).

Lemaître, A.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C.

R. Agarwal and C. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowires: optics and optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. A 85, 209–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M. Y.

S. Y. Chou, M. Y. Liu, and P. B. Fischer, “Tera-hertz GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with 25 nm finger spacing and finger width,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 477–479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ly-Gagnon, D.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahe, R.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makita, K.

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, E. W.

E. W. McFarland and J. Tang, “A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission,” Nature 421, 616–618 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

T. Ishi, T. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1521–1523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J. L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J.-L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1521–1523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skauli, T.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

E. W. McFarland and J. Tang, “A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission,” Nature 421, 616–618 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teissier, R.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thierry-Mieg, V.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, R. Mahe, L. Ferlazzo, E. Cambril, V. Thierry-Mieg, A. Lemaître, and J. L. Pelouard, “Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Proc. SPIE 5734, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, A. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, R.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM photograph of a 5 × 5 μm2 nano-MSM photodetector. (b) Schematic drawing of the nano-MSM photodetector, and cross-section of the calculated spatial distribution of the electric field intensity in the GaAs absorbing layer in TE polarization (λ = 790 nm). White regions show high absorption. (c) Schematic drawing of the active part of the photodetector showing the GaAs nanowire array where most of the absorption occurs, and carrier collection mechanism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental and numerical reflection spectra in TE polarization (black curves), and numerical results of absorption (red curve) in the 40 nm-thick GaAs layer, at normal incidence. (b) Angular dependence of the absorption efficiency in the GaAs layer at resonance wavelength λ = 790 nm (numerical results).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IV characteristics of nano-MSM photodetector (sample B) in dark (black dots) and illuminated (color dots) conditions, for different light powers and for λ = 790 nm wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

External quantum efficiency η (color dots: measurements, lines: Lorentzian fit) as a function of the wavelength and incident light power on sample A (Bias voltage: 2 V). The theoretical absorption Ath (λ) calculated in the GaAs layer is also shown (black curve). Inset: External quantum efficiency as a function of the incident light power (measurements under 2 V bias voltage).

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