Abstract

We have determined two-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction spectra of the 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glasses (with x = 25, 35, 50 cationic %) at the range of the 470 and 1550 nm. The replacement of fluor atoms by oxygen leads to an increase in the third-order susceptibility, due to the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBO). The nonlinear index of refraction is one order of magnitude higher than the one for fused silica, and it increases almost twice for the sample with x = 50. This sample has also shown promising features for all-optical switching as well as for optical limiting.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Samineni, Z. Perret, W. S. Warren, and M. C. Fischer, “Measurements of nonlinear refractive index in scattering media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12727–12735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. El-Diasty, M. Abdel-Baki, and F. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n(2) and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Two-photon absorption in TeO2-PbO glasses excited at 532 and 590 nm,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 441–443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

2007

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jana, B. Karmakar, and P. Kundu, “Unusual visible absorption in high PbO lead borate glass,” Mater. Sci. 25, 1127–1134 (2007).

2005

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

Z. D. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and B. H. Long, “Raman-scattering cross-section and nonlinear-optical response of lead borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(1-2), 127–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

Z. D. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, “A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(3), 1767–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

Abdel-Baki, M.

F. El-Diasty, M. Abdel-Baki, and F. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n(2) and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abdel-Wahab, F. A.

F. El-Diasty, M. Abdel-Baki, and F. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n(2) and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Affatigato, M.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, B. G.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Armengol, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

Cohanoschi, I.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Correa, D. S.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Two-photon absorption in TeO2-PbO glasses excited at 532 and 590 nm,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 441–443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Boni, L.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de S. Menezes, L.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Two-photon absorption in TeO2-PbO glasses excited at 532 and 590 nm,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 441–443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Souza, J. E.

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

Delong, K. W.

Dharmaprakash, S. M.

Diez-Blanco, V.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

El-Diasty, F.

F. El-Diasty, M. Abdel-Baki, and F. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n(2) and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feller, S.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Fischer, M. C.

Frampton, K.

Garcia-Navarro, A.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

Henderson, D. O.

Z. D. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, “A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(3), 1767–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hernandes, A. C.

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

Hernandez, F. E.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Z. J.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Q.

Jana, S.

S. Jana, B. Karmakar, and P. Kundu, “Unusual visible absorption in high PbO lead borate glass,” Mater. Sci. 25, 1127–1134 (2007).

Ji, W.

Kang, I.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karmakar, B.

S. Jana, B. Karmakar, and P. Kundu, “Unusual visible absorption in high PbO lead borate glass,” Mater. Sci. 25, 1127–1134 (2007).

Kundu, P.

S. Jana, B. Karmakar, and P. Kundu, “Unusual visible absorption in high PbO lead borate glass,” Mater. Sci. 25, 1127–1134 (2007).

Liu, L. Y.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. P.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Long, B. H.

Z. D. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and B. H. Long, “Raman-scattering cross-section and nonlinear-optical response of lead borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(1-2), 127–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, C. R.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Misoguti, L.

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Morgan, S. H.

Z. D. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and B. H. Long, “Raman-scattering cross-section and nonlinear-optical response of lead borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(1-2), 127–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, “A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(3), 1767–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M'Peko, J. C.

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

Osgood, R. M.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. D.

Z. D. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and B. H. Long, “Raman-scattering cross-section and nonlinear-optical response of lead borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(1-2), 127–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, “A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(3), 1767–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

Pearl, S.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perret, Z.

Petropoulos, P.

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Two-photon absorption in TeO2-PbO glasses excited at 532 and 590 nm,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 441–443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rojas, S. S.

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

Rotenberg, N.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Saifi, M. A.

Samineni, P.

Sanz, O.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Siegel, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smolorz, S.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

van Driel, H. M.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vega, F.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

Wise, F.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y. G.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. L.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Two-photon absorption in TeO2-PbO glasses excited at 532 and 590 nm,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 441–443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. C. M'Peko, J. E. De Souza, S. S. Rojas, and A. C. Hernandes, “Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044901 (2008).

J. Chem. Phys.

Z. D. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, “A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(3), 1767–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and B. H. Long, “Raman-scattering cross-section and nonlinear-optical response of lead borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(1-2), 127–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mater. Sci.

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Nat. Photonics

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. G. Xi, Z. L. Xu, Z. J. Hou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, W. C. Wang, M. Affatigato, and S. Feller, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in bulk PbO/B2O3 glass,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 367–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Correa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. El-Diasty, M. Abdel-Baki, and F. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n(2) and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear (line) and nonlinear (line + symbols) absorption spectra of 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glasses (x = 25, 35 and 50 cationic %), whose labels are defined in the figure. The inset shows the open aperture Z-scan signature for the x = 50 sample at 700 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Values of the nonlinear refractive index as a function of wavelength for the 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glass with x = 50 cationic %. For this sample at 700 nm, a closed aperture Z-scan signature is illustrated in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear index of refraction (squares) and 2PA coefficient (circles) as a function of the band gap energy of the 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glasses with x = 25, 35 and 50 cationic %. The γ values represent the average of whole spectrum, and β is the average at the range of 500-550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Figure of merit of the 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glass with x = 50 at the range of 450-800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical limiting curves for 50BO1.5 - (50-x)PbF2 - xPbO glass(closed symbols), with x = 25 (a), 35 (b) and 50 (c) and silica fused (open circles) at 650 nm. The solid lines correspond to the fittings obtained using 2PA, while de dashed line represent the fitting considering 2PA and 3PA processes [19].

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