Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time a fully integrated electro-optic modulator based on locally strained silicon rib-waveguides. By depositing a Si3N4 strain layer directly on top of the silicon waveguide the silicon crystal is asymmetrically distorted. Thus its inversion symmetry is broken and a linear electro-optic effect is induced. Electro-optic characterization yields a record high value χ(2) yyz = 122 pm/V for the second-order susceptibility of the strained silicon waveguide and a strict linear dependence between the applied modulation voltage Vmod and the resulting effective index change Δneff. Spatially resolved micro-Raman and terahertz (THz) difference frequency generation (DFG) experiments provide in-depth insight into the origin of the electro-optic effect by correlating the local strain distribution with the observed second-order optical activity.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (3)

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

Amberg, P.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Barklund, A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bolten, J.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. T.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

DeWolf, I.

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. C.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gould, M.

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hampe, J.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillerkuss, D.

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, A.

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Jenett, M.

Kartner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. Y.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, G. L.

Li, J.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18235–18242 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. W.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, J. P.

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Matheisen, C.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, R.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. Y.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinckney, N.

Pinguet, T.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Prorok, S.

Raj, K.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, J.

Solli, D. R.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sorace, C. M.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Tsia, K. K.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, M.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, J.

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wülbern, J. H.

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. H.

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, P. K. L.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X. Z.

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Y. Peng, C. F. Huang, Y. C. Fu, Y. H. Yang, C. Y. Lai, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. L. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18235–18242 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, C. M. Sorace, and F. X. Kartner, “Broadband linearized silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4485–4500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross sectional view of a SOI rib-waveguide with a Si3N4 strain layer and a SiO2 cladding. Both the top surface and the vertical sidewalls are subject to strain generation. Here the core of the waveguide features an asymmetric compressive strain. The dots symbolize the induced lattice distortion, not the wall geometry. (b) A corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of the structure. The diagonal cracks are caused by the cleaving of the sample for SEM inspection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic cross section of one MZI arm with electrodes and electric field distribution. The electrodes have a width of 30 μm and a separation distance of 10 μm. Consequently the electric field Emod inside the waveguide is polarized exclusively in z-direction. (b) Schematic top view of the whole MZI device with push-pull electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-optic characterization of the MZI device. (a) Spectral transfer functions measured at different modulation voltages Vmod . (b) Spectral shift of the STF plotted versus Vmod . The spectral shift is extracted by fitting parabolic curves to the STF maximum around λ Peak = 1575 nm. The corresponding Emod und Δneff are included on the upper axis and the right axis, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Micro-Raman investigation of the strain distribution in silicon structures. The MRS measurements were conducted on a bulk silicon reference sample (black), an unstrained (red) and a strained (blue) rib-waveguide. The solid lines are the corresponding fitting curves with a Lorentzian profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Micro-Raman and THz mappings across a 12 μm wide strained rib-waveguide. The black dashed lines mark the edge regions of the waveguide. (a) Measurement of the Raman line width across one half of the waveguide. (b) Near field measurement of the THz amplitude across the whole waveguide.

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