Abstract

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is capable of achieving optical-absorption-contrast images with micron-scale spatial resolution. Previous OR-PAM systems have been frame-rate limited by mechanical scanning speeds and laser pulse repetition rate (PRR). We demonstrate OR-PAM imaging using a diode-pumped nanosecond-pulsed Ytterbium-doped 532-nm fiber laser with PRR up to 600 kHz. Combined with fast-scanning mirrors, our proposed system provides C-scan and 3D images with acquisition frame rate of 4 frames per second (fps) or higher, two orders of magnitude faster than previously published systems. High-contrast images of capillary-scale microvasculature in a live Swiss Webster mouse ear with ~6-µm optical lateral spatial resolution are demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
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  4. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
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  9. S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
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  11. S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
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  12. E. Zhang and P. Beard, “Ultra high sensitivity, wideband Fabry Perot ultrasound sensors as an alternative to piezoelectric PVDF transducers for biomedical photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 5320, 222–229 (2004).
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  13. Z. X. Xie, S. L. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
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  24. P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1236–1238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of transverse blood flow by using Doppler broadening of bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1419–1421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacousticmicroscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Billeh, M. Liu, and T. Buma, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy using a photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18519–18524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. X. Xie, S. L. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2006

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

E. Zhang and P. Beard, “Ultra high sensitivity, wideband Fabry Perot ultrasound sensors as an alternative to piezoelectric PVDF transducers for biomedical photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 5320, 222–229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, J.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

E. Zhang and P. Beard, “Ultra high sensitivity, wideband Fabry Perot ultrasound sensors as an alternative to piezoelectric PVDF transducers for biomedical photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 5320, 222–229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Billeh, Y. N.

Buma, T.

Chen, X. H.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangi, A. F.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godwal, Y.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, Y.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Kerr, S.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. M.

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, J.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Mali, W. P. Th. M.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1236–1238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacousticmicroscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

Mathewson, K.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nederkoorn, P. J.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niessen, W. J.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, L.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Ranasinghesagara, J. C.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Shao, P.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Song, L.

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taber, L. A.

Tsytsarev, V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utkin, I.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viergever, M. A.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. H.

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacousticmicroscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1236–1238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of transverse blood flow by using Doppler broadening of bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1419–1421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. X.

Yan, P.

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Zemp, R. J.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

E. Zhang and P. Beard, “Ultra high sensitivity, wideband Fabry Perot ultrasound sensors as an alternative to piezoelectric PVDF transducers for biomedical photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 5320, 222–229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, S. Hu, L. Yang, Y. Xia, J. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. H. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, P. J. Nederkoorn, J. Bakker, W. P. Th. M. Mali, and M. A. Viergever, “Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results,” Magn. Reson. Med. 45(2), 311–322 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Med. Phys. 36(6), 2320–2323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1236–1238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. X. Xie, S. L. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free Photoacoustic Ophthalmic Angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1–3 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of transverse blood flow by using Doppler broadening of bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1419–1421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacousticmicroscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE •••, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of amyloid-β deposits in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75643D, 75643D-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, J. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. H. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756406, 756406-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang and P. Beard, “Ultra high sensitivity, wideband Fabry Perot ultrasound sensors as an alternative to piezoelectric PVDF transducers for biomedical photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 5320, 222–229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1–2007 (American National Standards Institute, Inc., 2007).

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New York (2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (1918 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (788 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup for the photoacoustic imaging system with focused transducer (FL: fiber laser; FLD: fiber laser driver; RM: high reflectivity mirror; GS: glass slide; PD: photodiode; FG1, FG2: function generator; DX, DY: galvanometer scanning mirror driver; SM1, SM2: scanning mirror; OL: 18-mm objective lens; P: prism; IF: index-matching fluid; M: membrane; UST: ultrasound transducer; Amp: amplifier). A diode-pumped pulsed Ytterbium fiber laser generates 532 nm output. A glass slide was inserted to reflect some light into high speed photodiode detector. We used 2D fast scanning mirrors and an objective lens to realize scanning and focusing. We used a uniquely designed minimal-loss probe with a 10 MHz ultrasound transducer (US-TX) for photoacoustic signal detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a human hair; (b) Image of a 7.5-μm carbon fiber target positioned 1.5 mm below the probe membrane; (c) Photoacoustic signal (circles) of a slice of data selected perpendicular to the carbon fiber on 2D image with Gaussian fit (line) in clear water, FWHM = 9 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) in vivo image of microvasculature in a Swiss Webster mouse ear acquired at 2 fps, which shows an image of a pair of parallel arteries or veins surrounded by capillaries; Media 1 shows the volumetric visualization of the Swiss Webster mouse ear microvasculatures by OR-PAM; (b) Another in vivo image of microvasculature in a Swiss Webster mouse ear; Media 2 shows corresponding volumetric visualization of the Swiss Webster mouse ear microvasculature.

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