Abstract

For off-zenith observations with ground-based astronomical telescopes, the effect of atmospheric dispersion relative to diffraction on image size increases with telescope diameter. Correction of atmospheric dispersion in extremely large telescopes (ELTs) might become critical. A common solution for ELTs is to use linear atmospheric dispersion correctors (ADCs). In spite of their simplicity, the intrinsic chromatic aberrations of linear ADCs could render diffraction-limited imaging impossible when used in a fast focus. The chromatic problems of the linear ADC in ELTs can be resolved by replacing the linear ADC by the achromatic ADC designs presented here, which provide diffraction-limited image quality and offer several opto-mechanical advantages over linear ADCs.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (6)

M. Hart, “Recent advances in astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, D17–D29 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Shectman and M. Johns, “GMT overview,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77331Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser launch location on the performance of laser tomography and multiconjugate adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G114–G119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Atwood, P. Byrnes, and G. Herriot, “NFIRAOS: the optical design of an adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390G (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

N. Devaney, A. V. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1072–1081 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Delabre, “Optical design for an adaptive anastigmatic five-mirror extremely large telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 487, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Atad-Ettedgui, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. V. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion effects in ELTs and their compensation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70181D (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. V. Goncharov, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “Atmospheric dispersion compensation for extremely large telescopes,” Opt. Express 15, 1534–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Cesarsky, “The birth of the European ELT,” ESO Messenger 127, 2–3 (2007).

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

2006 (1)

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Atmospheric dispersion in very large telescopes with adaptive optics,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 130–134 (1999).

1997 (1)

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS Focal Reducers at the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Correction of atmospheric dispersion in the infrared,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, 863–867 (1996).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “A new form of atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 262, 741–748 (1993).

1986 (1)

C. G. Wynne and S. P. Worswick, “Atmospheric dispersion correctors at the Cassegrain focus,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 220, 657–670 (1986).

Adkins, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atad-Ettedgui, E.

E. Atad-Ettedgui, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. V. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion effects in ELTs and their compensation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70181D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Atwood, P. Byrnes, and G. Herriot, “NFIRAOS: the optical design of an adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avila, G.

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS Focal Reducers at the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS Focal Reducers at the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bellazzini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A.

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. R.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Atwood, P. Byrnes, and G. Herriot, “NFIRAOS: the optical design of an adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caputa, K.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cesarsky, C.

C. Cesarsky, “The birth of the European ELT,” ESO Messenger 127, 2–3 (2007).

Ciliegi, P.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, G.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cousty, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cowley, D.

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Delabre, B.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Delabre, “Optical design for an adaptive anastigmatic five-mirror extremely large telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 487, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

Diolaiti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Erikson, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fitzsimmons, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, F.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser launch location on the performance of laser tomography and multiconjugate adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G114–G119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

Goncharov, A. V.

Hart, M.

M. Hart, “Recent advances in astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, D17–D29 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Atwood, P. Byrnes, and G. Herriot, “NFIRAOS: the optical design of an adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, P. M.

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

S. Shectman and M. Johns, “GMT overview,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77331Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

Lardier, O.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGregor, P.

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, B.

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meimon, S.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
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Miller, J.

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morin, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
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Owner-Petersen, M.

E. Atad-Ettedgui, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. V. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion effects in ELTs and their compensation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70181D (2008).
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Pazder, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, A C.

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshetov, V.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rossettini, P.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rupprecht, G.

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS Focal Reducers at the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
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Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schoeck, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, L.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shectman, S.

S. Shectman and M. Johns, “GMT overview,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77331Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hinz, A. Bouchez, M. Johns, S. Shectman, M. Hart, B. McLeod, and P. McGregor, “The GMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sinquin, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

Tomelleri, R.

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
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Wallace, V.

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser launch location on the performance of laser tomography and multiconjugate adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G114–G119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wevers, I.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
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Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics I (Springer, 2007).

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C. G. Wynne and S. P. Worswick, “Atmospheric dispersion correctors at the Cassegrain focus,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 220, 657–670 (1986).

Wynne, C. G.

C. G. Wynne, “Atmospheric dispersion in very large telescopes with adaptive optics,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 130–134 (1999).

C. G. Wynne, “Correction of atmospheric dispersion in the infrared,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, 863–867 (1996).

C. G. Wynne, “A new form of atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 262, 741–748 (1993).

C. G. Wynne and S. P. Worswick, “Atmospheric dispersion correctors at the Cassegrain focus,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 220, 657–670 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

B. Delabre, “Optical design for an adaptive anastigmatic five-mirror extremely large telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 487, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ESO Messenger (2)

C. Cesarsky, “The birth of the European ELT,” ESO Messenger 127, 2–3 (2007).

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (4)

C. G. Wynne, “Atmospheric dispersion in very large telescopes with adaptive optics,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 130–134 (1999).

C. G. Wynne, “Correction of atmospheric dispersion in the infrared,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, 863–867 (1996).

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C. G. Wynne and S. P. Worswick, “Atmospheric dispersion correctors at the Cassegrain focus,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 220, 657–670 (1986).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (11)

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Atad-Ettedgui, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. V. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion effects in ELTs and their compensation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70181D (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS Focal Reducers at the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A C. Phillips, J. Miller, D. Cowley, and V. Wallace, “The Keck-I Cassegrain atmospheric dispersion corrector,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691O (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, J. Conan, I. Foppiani, E. Marchetti, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, C. R. Butler, P. Ciliegi, G. Cosentino, B. Delabre, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Rossettini, L. Schreiber, R. Tomelleri, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, and S. Meimon, “Conceptual design and performance of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 77360R (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, S. Browne, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, K. Caputa, R. Conan, R. Cousty, D. Erikson, J. Fitzsimmons, F. Gamache, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, O. Lardier, P. Morin, J. Pazder, T. Pfrommer, D. Quinn, V. Reshetov, S. Roberts, J. Sinquin, M. Schoeck, M. Smith, G. Tyler, J. Vaughn, J. Veran, C. Vogel, L. Wang, and I. Wevers, “First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7036, 773604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Atwood, P. Byrnes, and G. Herriot, “NFIRAOS: the optical design of an adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390G (2009).
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R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics I (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spot diagrams for the E-ELT operating at 45 deg off Zenith at different spectral bands. The black circle represents the Airy disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical layout of LADC; W2 can move and tune the intrinsic dispersion of the system for different Zenith angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The spot diagrams of a designed LADC for the E-ELT operating at 45 deg from Zenith over 2-arcmin full field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A simple RADC: (a) maximum dispersion, (b) zero dispersion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The optical layout of the E-ELT featuring the new design of the three-lens rotating achromatic ADC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The three-lens achromatic ADC with the unchanged path of the rays.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The image of an LGS situated at 92 km altitude above the E-ELT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The orientations of the counter-rotating lenses of the ADC for three different Zenith angles and corresponding spot diagrams over the 2-arcmin full field in the R band.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The dispersion curves of N-F2 and S-PHM52 crossing at the prime wavelength, λ = 0.657μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spot diagrams for the 2-arcmin full field of view of the E-ELT with the three-lens ADC in the I band (a) and J band (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

NGS vertical displacement relative to the primary wavelength (0.657 μm) for the E-ELT operating in the R band at 45 deg off Zenith.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Aberration diagrams for: (a) the E-ELT without the ADC, (b) E-ELT with the three-lens ADC, and (c) the three-lens ADC alone (The scales in the diagrams describing the total aberrations are different and the tilts of the surfaces are not considered.)

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The two-lens ADC and its effect on the path of the rays at F1. The dashed lines correspond to rays reflected from the modified M1 and M2 without seeing the ADC.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The aberration diagrams for the two-lens ADC.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Optical transmittance of the E-ELT (relative to the telescope transmittance at Zenith) as a function of field angle at different Zenith angles.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Transmittance Coefficients for Silica and the Glasses Used in the ADC

Tables Icon

Table 2 The Optical Prescription of the Achromatic Three-Lens ADC

Tables Icon

Table 3 The Optical Prescription for the Achromatic Two-Lens ADC

Tables Icon

Table 4 Optical Transmittance of the E-ELT with the Linear and Achromatic ADC at Zenith

Equations (2)

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δ a x = t ( n 1 ) n 2 V ,
O T * ( Z ) = O T ( Z ) O T ( 0 ) O T ( 0 ) × 100 % ,

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