Abstract

A system of three external cavity diode lasers is used to excite Rydberg states in rubidium. The 5S→5P→5D transitions are driven using lasers with λ = 780 and 776 nm respectively. From the 5D state, atoms fluoresce down to the 6P state. The final transition to Rydberg levels is from the 6P state with laser light near λ = 1016 nm. The nS and nD Rydberg states are accessible directly and with the application of a modest electric field nP states can also be excited. As a test of this system, Stark spectra are collected for nD and nP states.

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    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

D. Comparat and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A208–A232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Olson and S. K. Mayer, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 116–121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. C. Killian, T. Pattard, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Ultracold neutral plasmas,” Phys. Rep. 449, 77–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Meijer, J. D. White, B. Smeets, M. Jeppesen, and R. E. Scholten, “Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1002–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

E. Gomez, S. Aubin, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “Lifetime and hyperfine splitting measurements on the 7s and 6p levels in rubidium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2058–2067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Safronova, C. J. Williams, and C. W. Clark, “Relativistic many-body calculations of electric-dipole matrix elements, lifetimes, and polarizabilities in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 022509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Boisseau, I. Simbotin, and R. Côté, “Macrodimers: ultralong range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, Michael W. Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and P. R. Hemmer, “Quantum entanglement via optical control of atom–atom interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2818–2821 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Greene, A. S. Dickinson, and H. R. Sadeghpour, “Creation of polar and nonpolar ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458–2461 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Long-range forces between cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1839–1842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

C. Iu, G. D. Stevens, and H. Metcalf, “Instrumentation for multistep excitation of lithium atoms to Rydberg states,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2640–2644 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1979 (1)

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleppner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akulin, V. M.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. R.

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

Aubin, S.

Balewski, J. B.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, B.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bason, M. G.

Becker, Th.

L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bendkowsky, V.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bendowsky, V.

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boisseau, C.

C. Boisseau, I. Simbotin, and R. Côté, “Macrodimers: ultralong range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Booth, D.

K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Browaeys, A.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butscher, B.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chotia, A.

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciampini, D.

Cirac, J. I.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, C. W.

M. S. Safronova, C. J. Williams, and C. W. Clark, “Relativistic many-body calculations of electric-dipole matrix elements, lifetimes, and polarizabilities in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 022509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comparat, D.

D. Comparat and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A208–A232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Long-range forces between cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1839–1842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Côté, R.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boisseau, I. Simbotin, and R. Côté, “Macrodimers: ultralong range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

de Tomasi, F.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, A. S.

C. H. Greene, A. S. Dickinson, and H. R. Sadeghpour, “Creation of polar and nonpolar ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458–2461 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drag, C.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Long-range forces between cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1839–1842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drishnan, S.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, B. C.

W. Süptitz, B. C. Duncan, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient 5D excitation of trapped Rb atoms using pulses of diode-laser light in the counterintuitive order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1001–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S. K.

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Estrin, A. S.

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Evellin, C.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Farooqi, S. M.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Feldbaum, D.

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fioretti, A.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Long-range forces between cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1839–1842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaëtan, A.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, Michael W. Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Long-range forces between cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1839–1842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Germann, Th.

P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A. T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, E.

Gould, P. L.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Süptitz, B. C. Duncan, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient 5D excitation of trapped Rb atoms using pulses of diode-laser light in the counterintuitive order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1001–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Grabowski, A.

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greene, C. H.

C. H. Greene, A. S. Dickinson, and H. R. Sadeghpour, “Creation of polar and nonpolar ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458–2461 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, T. T.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guest, J. R.

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Heidemann, R.

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

M. D. Lukin and P. R. Hemmer, “Quantum entanglement via optical control of atom–atom interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2818–2821 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmerich, A.

Henage, T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Isenhower, L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iu, C.

Jaksch, D.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, M.

Johnson, L. A. M.

L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. A.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. L.

B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kash, M. M.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleppner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Killian, T. C.

T. C. Killian, T. Pattard, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Ultracold neutral plasmas,” Phys. Rep. 449, 77–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleppner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, S.

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Kumarakrishnan, A.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laburthe Tolra, B.

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, Michael W. Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleppner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Löw, R.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and P. R. Hemmer, “Quantum entanglement via optical control of atom–atom interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2818–2821 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Majeed, H. O.

B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Majeed, O. H.

L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, S.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malossi, N.

Mayer, S. K.

A. J. Olson and S. K. Mayer, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 116–121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D. H.

Meijer, T.

Metcalf, H.

Miroshnychenko, Y.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morsch, O.

Mourachko, I.

W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nipper, J.

V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noel, M. W.

W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, “Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noel, Michael W.

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, Michael W. Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nosbaum, P.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. M. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olson, A. J.

A. J. Olson and S. K. Mayer, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 116–121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orozco, L. A.

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K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
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E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
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V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
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A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
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T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
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Raithel, G.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
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S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
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L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
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B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
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Schwettmann, A.

K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
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V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
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K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
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V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
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D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
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V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. B. Balewski, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, T. Pfau, W. Li, J. Stanojevic, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Rydberg trimers and excited dimers bound by internal quantum reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163201 (2010).
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D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
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S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
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Stevens, G. D.

Stuhler, J.

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
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Süptitz, W.

Tallant, J.

K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
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W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
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W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
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P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
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D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
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S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Urban, E.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
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P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
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W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
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L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
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B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
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T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
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T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
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W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
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M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
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L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
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S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, “High-angular-momentum states in cold Rydberg gasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993–3996 (2001).
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White, J. D.

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
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M. S. Safronova, C. J. Williams, and C. W. Clark, “Relativistic many-body calculations of electric-dipole matrix elements, lifetimes, and polarizabilities in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 022509 (2004).
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T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
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W. Li, M. W. Noel, M. P. Robinson, P. J. Tanner, T. F. Gallagher, D. Comparat, B. Laburthe Tolra, N. Vanhaecke, T. Vogt, N. Zahzam, P. Pillet, and D. A. Tate, “Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 042713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Demonstration of a neutral atom controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. P.

D. Tong, S. M. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Drishnan, Y. P. Zhang, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, “Long-range molecular resonances in a cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).

Zhao, J.

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. Zhao, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high-resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
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D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (2)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fortschr. Phys. (1)

A. Grabowski, R. Heidemann, R. Löw, J. Stuhler, and T. Pfau, “High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultra-cold rubidium atoms,” Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765–775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Thoumany, Th. Germann, T. Hänsch, G. Stania, L. Urbonas, and Th. Becker, “Spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg states with three diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 2055–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (1)

B. Sanguinetti, H. O. Majeed, M. L. Jones, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Precision measurements of quantum defects in the nP3/2 Rydberg states of 85Rb,” J. Phys. B 42, 165004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5, 110–114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5, 115–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Overstreet, A. Schwettmann, J. Tallant, D. Booth, and J. P. Shaffer, “Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers,” Nat. Phys. 5, 581–585 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. Bendowsky, B. Butscher, J. Nipper, J. P. Shaffer, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules,” Nature 458, 1005–1008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

L. A. M. Johnson, O. H. Majeed, B. Sanguinetti, Th. Becker, and B. T. H. Varcoe, “Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection,” New J. Phys. 12, 063028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

T. C. Killian, T. Pattard, T. Pohl, and J. M. Rost, “Ultracold neutral plasmas,” Phys. Rep. 449, 77–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level scheme for the excitation of 85Rb to Rydberg states. Included are the relevant hyperfine splittings (shown in MHz) and fluorescent transitions (dashed lines). By exciting only the 5P3/2(F = 4) → 5D5/2(F′ = 5) transition in the second step, only the 6P3/2(F = 4) level is populated, thus allowing for a well-defined pathway to nS or nD states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the laser system. A 780 nm ECDL is stabilized by saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS, not shown) and used to lock a 776 nm ECDL to the 5P3/2 → 5D5/2 transition via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Rb vapor cell (boxed region). Optical isolators (OI) prevent unwanted feedback. The 776 nm beam is focused through an AOM and combined with light from a 1016 nm ECDL with a dichroic mirror (DM) before being sent to the MOT. A portion of the 1016 nm light is monitored with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and wavemeter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Saturated absorptions signal used to lock the 780 nm ECDL. (b) Nearly Doppler-free absorption spectrum of the 5P3/2 → 5D5/2 used for locking the 776 nm ECDL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency scans of the (a) 32D doublet and (b) 34S state in the absence of an applied electric field. The larger peaks are due to excitation from the 6P3/2(F = 4) hyperfine level, while the smaller peaks are due to excitation from the 6P3/2(F = 3) hyperfine level. (c) A scan of the Fabry-Perot interferometer with a free-spectral range of 1.5 GHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stark map for (a) the 32D and (b) the 50D states in 85Rb. Shown in red is the calculated energy level splitting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stark map for the 33P3/2 state in 85Rb. Shown in red is the calculated energy level splitting.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Integrated signal for 32D5/2 Rydberg state excitation for 1016 nm pulse durations ranging from 50 ns to 5.14 μs in 20 ns increments.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time resolved electron signals from the field ionized Rydberg atoms for several 1016 nm excitation pulse durations. Each panel is labeled with the duration of the excitation pulse used, which is also marked with a red cross in Fig. 7.

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