Abstract

Third harmonic generation (THG) of femtosecond laser pulses in sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films is investigated. Using layers of graded thickness, the dependence of THG on the film parameters is studied. The maximum THG signal is observed at a thickness of 180 nm. The corresponding conversion efficiency is 26 times larger compared to THG at the air-glass interface. For a demonstration of the capabilities of such a highly nonlinear material for pulse characterization, third-order autocorrelation and interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating (IFROG) traces are recorded with unamplified nanojoule pulses directly from a broadband femtosecond laser oscillator.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tölke, A. Kriltz, and A. Rechtenbach, “The influence of pressure on the structure and the self-cleaning properties of sputter deposited TiO2 layers,” Thin Solid Films 518(15), 4242–4246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Structures of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 286–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ebothe, I. V. Kityk, and I. Fuks-Janczarek, “Two-photon absorption study of the large-sized nanocrystallites,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5763–5767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2617–2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. der Au, and J. Squier, “Spatial and temporal characterizations of femtosecond pulses at high-numerical aperture using collinear, background-free, third-harmonic autocorrelation,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 405–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Amat-Roldán, I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. J. Gualda, and D. Artigas, “Ultrashort pulse characterisation with SHG collinear-FROG,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1169–1178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Measurement of ultrashort optical pulses by third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(8), 2122–2125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (3)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel-derived V2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34(16), 2941–2948 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, M. Ohnishi, and T. Tsuchiya, “Measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in titanium dioxide single crystal by using a phase distortion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3431–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Addou, M.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A. W.

Amat-Roldán, I.

Anderson, A.

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

Baek, J.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Barille, R.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, M. F.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bock, M.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, M.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelnokov, E.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

Das, S. K.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

der Au, J. A.

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. der Au, and J. Squier, “Spatial and temporal characterizations of femtosecond pulses at high-numerical aperture using collinear, background-free, third-harmonic autocorrelation,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 405–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deryckx, K. S.

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Didenko, N. V.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebothe, J.

J. Ebothe, I. V. Kityk, and I. Fuks-Janczarek, “Two-photon absorption study of the large-sized nanocrystallites,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5763–5767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Essaidi, Z.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. der Au, and J. Squier, “Spatial and temporal characterizations of femtosecond pulses at high-numerical aperture using collinear, background-free, third-harmonic autocorrelation,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 405–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuks-Janczarek, I.

J. Ebothe, I. V. Kityk, and I. Fuks-Janczarek, “Two-photon absorption study of the large-sized nanocrystallites,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5763–5767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, S. M.

Giessen, H.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, V. N.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gualda, E. J.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

He, G.

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hybl, J. D.

Ippen, E. P.

Jasapara, J.

Jonas, D. M.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapustianyk, V.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keto, J. W.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khazanov, E. A.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

Kippelen, B.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

J. Ebothe, I. V. Kityk, and I. Fuks-Janczarek, “Two-photon absorption study of the large-sized nanocrystallites,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5763–5767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konyashchenko, A. V.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovar, D.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kriltz, A.

T. Tölke, A. Kriltz, and A. Rechtenbach, “The influence of pressure on the structure and the self-cleaning properties of sputter deposited TiO2 layers,” Thin Solid Films 518(15), 4242–4246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulyk, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landin, B. L.

Langlois, P.

Li, R.

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, H.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Lozhkarev, V. V.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luchinin, G. A.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lutsenko, G. A.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marine, W.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, J.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

Meshulach, D.

Mironov, S. Yu.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Ohnishi, M.

Y. Watanabe, M. Ohnishi, and T. Tsuchiya, “Measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in titanium dioxide single crystal by using a phase distortion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3431–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ozerov, I.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Partyka, M.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, G. I.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfuch, A.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rajaram, B.

Ramos-Ortiz, G.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rechtenbach, A.

T. Tölke, A. Kriltz, and A. Rechtenbach, “The influence of pressure on the structure and the self-cleaning properties of sputter deposited TiO2 layers,” Thin Solid Films 518(15), 4242–4246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Rudyk, V.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarger, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeber, W.

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shcheslavskiy, V.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Squier, J.

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. der Au, and J. Squier, “Spatial and temporal characterizations of femtosecond pulses at high-numerical aperture using collinear, background-free, third-harmonic autocorrelation,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 405–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Structures of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 286–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2617–2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Structures of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 286–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2617–2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoker, D. S.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thayumanavan, S.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tölke, T.

T. Tölke, A. Kriltz, and A. Rechtenbach, “The influence of pressure on the structure and the self-cleaning properties of sputter deposited TiO2 layers,” Thin Solid Films 518(15), 4242–4246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, T.

Tsang, T. Y. F.

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, T.

Y. Watanabe, M. Ohnishi, and T. Tsuchiya, “Measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in titanium dioxide single crystal by using a phase distortion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3431–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Turko, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Utikal, T.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, M. Ohnishi, and T. Tsuchiya, “Measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in titanium dioxide single crystal by using a phase distortion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3431–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. G.

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, I. V.

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Zentgraf, T.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Watanabe, M. Ohnishi, and T. Tsuchiya, “Measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in titanium dioxide single crystal by using a phase distortion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3431–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3348–3350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3993–3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Ebothe, I. V. Kityk, and I. Fuks-Janczarek, “Two-photon absorption study of the large-sized nanocrystallites,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5763–5767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Structures of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 286–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

J. Zhang, G. He, R. Li, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and optical properties of single-crystalline beta barium borate naorods,” J. Alloy. Comp. 489(2), 504–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Anderson, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, G. Steinmeyer, and M. B. Raschke, “Few-femtosecond plasmon dephasing of a single metallic nanostructure from optical response function reconstruction by interferometric frequency resolved optical gating,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2519–2524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. der Au, and J. Squier, “Spatial and temporal characterizations of femtosecond pulses at high-numerical aperture using collinear, background-free, third-harmonic autocorrelation,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 405–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, V. Kapustianyk, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, M. Partyka, M. Addou, and B. Sahraoui, “Second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on a-BBO and LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6107–6111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsang, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation at the interfaces of glass and liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), 5454–5457 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, “Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Dynamics and dephasing of plasmon polaritons in metallic photonic crystal superlattices: time- and frequency-resolved nonlinear autocorrelation measurements and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. K. Das, A. Rosenfeld, M. Bock, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, “Scattering-controlled femtosecond-laser induced nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 7925, 79251B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. N. Ginzburg, N. V. Didenko, A. V. Konyashchenko, V. V. Lozhkarev, G. A. Luchinin, G. A. Lutsenko, S. Yu. Mironov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 38(11), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Tölke, A. Kriltz, and A. Rechtenbach, “The influence of pressure on the structure and the self-cleaning properties of sputter deposited TiO2 layers,” Thin Solid Films 518(15), 4242–4246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(19), 5601–5604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear optical interactions with focused Gaussian beams,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Titanium dioxide nanolayers for highly efficient nonlinear frequency conversion: (a) Measured values of thickness (circles) and refractive indices (squares) at different positions, (b)-(c) Surface morphology of the granular surface at two selected positions corresponding to thicknesses of ~180 and 400 nm, respectively, detected by scanning electron microsopy. Inset of (a): optical image of a graded thin film. The spatially varying thickness is indicated by Newton's rings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO2 film (thickness 180 nm); the most prominent peak indicates the anatase phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for detecting the THG signal of nanolayers and performing highly sensitive pulse characterization by third-order autocorrelation and IFROG measurements (schematically). BS = beam splitter; OF = optical fiber, Mono/EMCCD = electron multiplier charge coupled device based spectrometer, L = lens (f = 12 mm) or concave mirror (f = 25 mm), MO = UV microscope objective, IF = 2 interference filters (266 nm, bandwidth 40 nm FWHM), M = HR mirrors (266 nm for comparative pulse characterization only).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analysis of the THG properties: (a) Thickness dependent THG from a graded TiO2 thin film. (b) THG signal as a function of the input power. The slope of ≈3 indicates the third-order process. (c) THG spectrum of a uniform TiO2 nanolayer with a thickness of 180 nm in comparison to the measured THG of a reference air-glass interface. Inset: spectrum of air-glass interface THG at different vertical scale (to improve the visibility).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Third-order pulse characterization experiments with optimized TiO2 nanolayers: (a) THG autocorrelation and (b) IFROG trace of a 15-fs pulse, (c) Retrieved spectral signal (blue rectangles) and spectral phase (red circles) from IFROG algorithm (including a marginal test of the retrieved signal with the reference signal, see the retrieved spectrum).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferometric autocorrelation of a chirped pulse taken with air-glass STHG (a) and THG of TiO2 thin film. (b) exposure times were 200 and 10 ms, respectively. Abscissas are scaled in relative units to demonstrate the 1:32 signal ratio of ideal third-order interferometric autocorrelations as well as in absolute units to enable a comparison of efficiencies.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interferometric FROG trace of a chirped pulse taken with air-glass STHG (a) and THG of TiO2 thin film (c). Exposure times are 200 and 10 ms, respectively. Retrieved pulses from the unmodulated kernel of the IFROG trace are shown in (b) and (d), respectively. The intensity profiles are indicated by solid lines (left axis); the phases as dashed lines (right axis).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Silica Bulk Material and TiO2 Nanolayer

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L C = λ 6 ( n 3 n 1 ) ,
I ( 3 ω ) s u b = H I ω 3 | χ s u b J ( b , Δ k s u b ) | 2 ,
I ( 3 ω ) s u b + t f = H I ω 3 | χ s u b J ( b , Δ k s u b ) χ t f J ( b , Δ k t f ) | 2 .
I ( 3 ω ) s u b = H s u b I ω 3 | χ s u b J ( b , Δ k s u b ) | 2 ,
I ( 3 ω ) t f = H t f I ω 3 | χ t f J ( b , Δ k t f ) | 2 ,
H s u b = 2304 π 6 n 1 s u b 3 n 3 s u b λ 1 2 c 2
H t f = 2304 π 6 n 1 t f 3 n 3 t f λ 1 2 c 2
J ( b , Δ k s u b ) = 0 e i Δ k s u b z ( 1 + 2 i z b )
J ( b , Δ k t f ) = L sin ( Δ k t f L 2 ) ( Δ k t f L 2 )

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