Abstract

Digital back-propagation (DBP) has recently been proposed for the comprehensive compensation of channel nonlinearities in optical communication systems. While DBP is attractive for its flexibility and performance, it poses significant challenges in terms of computational complexity. Alternatively, phase conjugation or spectral inversion has previously been employed to mitigate nonlinear fibre impairments. Though spectral inversion is relatively straightforward to implement in optical or electrical domain, it requires precise positioning and symmetrised link power profile in order to avail the full benefit. In this paper, we directly compare ideal and low-precision single-channel DBP with single-channel spectral-inversion both with and without symmetry correction via dispersive chirping. We demonstrate that for all the dispersion maps studied, spectral inversion approaches the performance of ideal DBP with 40 steps per span and exceeds the performance of electronic dispersion compensation by ~3.5 dB in Q-factor, enabling up to 96% reduction in complexity in terms of required DBP stages, relative to low precision one step per span based DBP. For maps where quasi-phase matching is a significant issue, spectral inversion significantly outperforms ideal DBP by ~3 dB.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 483–490 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator,” European Conference on Optical Communications, PD2.2 (2010).
  4. M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) Coherent Optical Transmission over 160 km with an Optical Bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThD5 (2010).
  5. D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear penalties in dynamic optical networks employing autonomous transponders,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1213–1215 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear penalties in long-haul optical networks employing dynamic transponders,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9044–9049 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 466–475 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Meusburger, D. A. Schupke, and A. Lord, “Optimizing the migration of channels with higher bitrates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 608–615 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and A. Kosinski, “Cancellation of all Kerr nonlinearities in long fiber spans using a LiNbO3 phase conjugator and Raman amplification,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 266–PD33–1 (2000).
  12. S. L. Jansen, D. Borne, B. Spinnler, S. Calabrò, H. Suche, P. M. Krummrich, W. Sohler, G. D. Khoe, and H. Waardt, “Optical phase conjugation for ultra long-haul phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 54–64 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. M. Eduardo, Z. Xiang, and G. Li, “Electronic phase conjugation for nonlinearity compensation in fiber communication systems,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, JWA025 (2011).
  14. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Li, E. Mateo, and L. Zhu, “Compensation of nonlinear effects using digital coherent receivers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW1 (2011).
  16. E. Ip, “Nonlinear compensation using backpropagation for polarization-multiplexed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(6), 939–951 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Rafique, M. Mussolin, M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, M. N. Chugtai, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of intra-channel nonlinear fibre impairments using simplified digital back-propagation algorithm,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9453–9460 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Lei, T. Zhenning, D. Liang, Y. Weizhen, O. Shoichiro, T. Takahito, H. Takeshi, and C. R. Jens, “Implementation efficient nonlinear equalizer based on correlated digital backpropagation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW3 (2011).
  19. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Experimental demonstration of XPM compensation for CO-OFDM systems with periodic dispersion maps,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW2 (2011).
  20. M. Mussolin, D. Rafique, J. Mårtensson, M. Forzati, J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, M. Nölle, C. Schubert, and A. D. Ellis, “Polarization multiplexed 224 Gb/s 16QAM transmission employing digital back-propagation,” European Conference on Optical Communications, accepted for publication (2011).
  21. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R. J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2120–2126 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of nonlinear fibre impairments in coherent systems employing spectrally efficient modulation format,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1815–1822 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15(23), 1351–1353 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of signal-ASE four-wave mixing on the effectiveness of digital back-propagation in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3449–3454 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2007

2006

S. L. Jansen, D. Borne, B. Spinnler, S. Calabrò, H. Suche, P. M. Krummrich, W. Sohler, G. D. Khoe, and H. Waardt, “Optical phase conjugation for ultra long-haul phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 54–64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2000

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

1978

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Akiba, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Borne, D.

Brierley, M.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calabrò, S.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chowdhury, A.

Chugtai, M. N.

Clausen, C. B.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

Cristiani, I.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Edagawa, N.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eiselt, M.

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear penalties in dynamic optical networks employing autonomous transponders,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1213–1215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of nonlinear fibre impairments in coherent systems employing spectrally efficient modulation format,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1815–1822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafique, M. Mussolin, M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, M. N. Chugtai, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of intra-channel nonlinear fibre impairments using simplified digital back-propagation algorithm,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9453–9460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear penalties in long-haul optical networks employing dynamic transponders,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9044–9049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of signal-ASE four-wave mixing on the effectiveness of digital back-propagation in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3449–3454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R. J.

Fejer, M. M.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ford, C. W.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forzati, M.

Gavioli, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gordon, J. P.

Ip, E.

Jansen, S. L.

Kelly, A. E.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

Killey, R. I.

Krummrich, P. M.

Langrock, C.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lord, A.

Marazzi, L.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcenac, D. D.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mårtensson, J.

Martinelli, M.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meusburger, C.

Minzioni, P.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Moodie, D. G.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Mussolin, M.

Nag, A.

Nesset, D.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

Rafique, D.

Raybon, G.

Savory, S. J.

Schupke, D. A.

Shtaif, M.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinsky, J. H.

Sohler, W.

Spinnler, B.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taga, H.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Waardt, H.

Winzer, P. J.

Yamamoto, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of nonlinear fibre impairments in coherent systems employing spectrally efficient modulation format,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1815–1822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Electron. Lett.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon-Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31(23), 2027–2029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40 Gbit/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 879–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 995–997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 392–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear penalties in dynamic optical networks employing autonomous transponders,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1213–1215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun.

D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of nonlinear fibre impairments in coherent systems employing spectrally efficient modulation format,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1815–1822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator,” European Conference on Optical Communications, PD2.2 (2010).

M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) Coherent Optical Transmission over 160 km with an Optical Bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThD5 (2010).

G. Li, E. Mateo, and L. Zhu, “Compensation of nonlinear effects using digital coherent receivers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW1 (2011).

L. Lei, T. Zhenning, D. Liang, Y. Weizhen, O. Shoichiro, T. Takahito, H. Takeshi, and C. R. Jens, “Implementation efficient nonlinear equalizer based on correlated digital backpropagation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW3 (2011).

L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Experimental demonstration of XPM compensation for CO-OFDM systems with periodic dispersion maps,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OWW2 (2011).

M. Mussolin, D. Rafique, J. Mårtensson, M. Forzati, J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, M. Nölle, C. Schubert, and A. D. Ellis, “Polarization multiplexed 224 Gb/s 16QAM transmission employing digital back-propagation,” European Conference on Optical Communications, accepted for publication (2011).

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and A. Kosinski, “Cancellation of all Kerr nonlinearities in long fiber spans using a LiNbO3 phase conjugator and Raman amplification,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 266–PD33–1 (2000).

F. M. Eduardo, Z. Xiang, and G. Li, “Electronic phase conjugation for nonlinearity compensation in fiber communication systems,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, JWA025 (2011).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Graphical representation for an uncompensated map showing, (a) Optical power profile, (b) Accumulated dispersion with SSI, and (c) Accumulated dispersion with PSI, as a function of number of spans. Solid circles represent regions of high nonlinearity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation setup for 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM (m = 4, 64) transmission system. Link: Dispersion profile as a function of number of spans for 0% and 90% inline dispersion compensation. Also, spectral inversion and pre-compensated spectral inversion architectures are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Qeff of central PM-64QAM channel as a function of launch power for various nonlinear compensation techniques. (a) SSMF with no inline dispersion compensation, (b) NZDSF with no inline dispersion compensation, (c) NZDSF with 90% inline dispersion compensation (hybrid transmission)., showing EDC (squares), SSI (circles), PSI (stars), DBP (1 step, down-triangle), DBP (2 steps, left-triangle), DBP (40 steps, up-triangle). (d) Qeff as a function of number of back-propagation steps per span for SSMF (red) and NZDSF (blue) showing DBP (circles with solid fit), SSI (dotted line,) and PSI (thick solid line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Constellation maps after SI (top) and EDC (bottom) for 28 Gbaud PM-64QAM at optimum launch power. (a) 0% inline compensation (SSMF), PSI and EDC (b) 0% inline compensation (NZDSF), PSI and EDC (c) 90% inline compensation (NZDSF), SSI and EDC.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fibre Types and Parameters

Metrics