Abstract

High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

2009

2008

2007

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12, 4822–4828 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-20-4822
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “A dynamical polarization mode dispersion emulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  4,534–536 (2003).

2002

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss for a pulse in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  19, 856–860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1998

1997

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin and B. Huttner, “Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.,  142, 119–125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  12, 917–929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Ai, J.

Aspect, A.

Bao, X.

D. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “A dynamical polarization mode dispersion emulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  4,534–536 (2003).

P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss for a pulse in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  19, 856–860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlile, S.

P. Leong and S. Carlile, “Methods for spherical data analysis and visualization,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 191–200 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

D. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “A dynamical polarization mode dispersion emulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  4,534–536 (2003).

P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss for a pulse in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  19, 856–860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Colston, B. W.

Courtney, B. K.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d.,

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Embleton, B. J. J.

N. I. Fisher, T. Lewis, and B. J. J. Embleton, Statistical Analysis of Spherical Data (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Everett, M. J.

Favin, D. L.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  12, 917–929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, N. I.

N. I. Fisher, T. Lewis, and B. J. J. Embleton, Statistical Analysis of Spherical Data (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

Giattina, S. D.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin and B. Huttner, “Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.,  142, 119–125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goto, H.

Götzinger, E.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17, 4151–4165 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4151
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 16410–16422 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, M.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirn, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17, 4151–4165 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4151
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 16410–16422 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huttner, B.

N. Gisin and B. Huttner, “Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.,  142, 119–125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, K.

Izatt, J. A.

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Kawana, K.

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, P.

P. Leong and S. Carlile, “Methods for spherical data analysis and visualization,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 191–200 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, T.

N. I. Fisher, T. Lewis, and B. J. J. Embleton, Statistical Analysis of Spherical Data (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Maitland, D. J.

Makita, S.

Michels, S.

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

Miyazawa, A.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pereda-Cubin, D.

Pierce, M. C.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17, 4151–4165 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4151
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 16410–16422 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  12, 917–929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shortkroff, S.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todorovic, M.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vansteenkiste, N.

Vass, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vignolo, P.

Waddy, D.

D. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “A dynamical polarization mode dispersion emulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  4,534–536 (2003).

Wang, L. V.

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yun, S.

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Cardiol.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, d., J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107, 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

S. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, E. F. Halpern, S. L. Houser, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of bire-fringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophoton.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J. Biophoton. 1, 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “A dynamical polarization mode dispersion emulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  4,534–536 (2003).

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  12, 917–929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss for a pulse in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.,  19, 856–860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods

P. Leong and S. Carlile, “Methods for spherical data analysis and visualization,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 191–200 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Med.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
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Opt. Commun.

N. Gisin and B. Huttner, “Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.,  142, 119–125 (1997).
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Opt. Express

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17, 4151–4165 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4151
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miyazawa, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, M. Miura, K. Kawana, K. Iwaya, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Tissue discrimination in anterior eye using three optical parameters obtained by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 17426–17440 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-17426
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 16410–16422 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12, 4822–4828 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-20-4822
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S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 854–876 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-854
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Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. I. Fisher, T. Lewis, and B. J. J. Embleton, Statistical Analysis of Spherical Data (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of a polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system. PC: polarization controller; LP: linear polarizer; EOM: electro-optical modulator; FS: frequency shifter; BBS: broad beamsplitter; PBS: polarization beamsplitter; BR: balanced receiver; A/D: analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Structural (conventional) OFDI M-mode image of 0.5% intralipid. (b) The variation of the measured Stokes vector of backscattered light in the indicated ROI is displayed on the Poincar sphere. The random walk is caused by PMD in the instrumentation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeling of the transfer of light through the sample arm is broken into three separable stages: fiber transfer functions (described in section 4.1(a)); sample reflection (section 4.1(b)); and interference and detection (section 4.1(c)).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fiber patchcords containing lengths of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) (or a length-matched SMF patchcord) were inserted into the sample arm to induce known PMD in the PS-OFDI system. PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measurement of signal SNR. (b) The relationship between Stokes variance and measurement SNR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The polarimetry noise induced by a single PMD segment. The mean (solid red curve) and standard deviation (dashed red curve, measured across Jones matrices J 1, J 2, and J 3) of the Stokes noise is plotted versus the magnitude of the PMD. Experimental mean and standard deviation Stokes noise (across 10 random states of polarization controllers PC1 and PC2, see Fig. 4) are plotted in blue. Noise was measured across 100 pixel depth × 10240 a-line ROIs within the speckle field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analysis of the impact of a circulator on polarimetry noise. (a) The noise induced by inclusion of a circulator in the sample arm is plotted as a function of the per-path PMD of the circulator. The mean (solid) and spread (standard deviation, dashed line) are calculated across random birefringence in the fiber leads of the circulator. (b) The noise induced by SMF PMD (assuming a circulator is not used) is plotted as a function of the SMF optical length. An average PMD level of 0.1 p s / k m was assumed. (c) The total polarimetry instrumentation noise (solid curves) versus signal attenuation for systems including a circulator (red) and a fused coupler (blue). Measurement SNRs of 50dB/46dB were assumed for a signal attenuation of 0dB with and without the circulator. The contribution of measurement SNR alone is presented as dashed lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Stokes noise levels induced by PMD correlate to signal intensity relative to ensemble mean intensity. (a) A section of a single A-line generated from the modeling. The intensity quantiles at 5% spacing are highlighted. (b) Stokes spherical variance calculated within each quantile shows significant dependence on relative local intensity, suggesting signals from the lower two quantiles should be discarded in any quantification or image generation algorithm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Estimation Methods Operating on PMD-induced Polarimetry Noise *

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( z ) = ( I ( z ) Q ( z ) U ( z ) V ( z ) ) = ( E x ( z ) E x * ( z ) + E y ( z ) E y * ( z ) E x ( z ) E x * ( z ) E y ( z ) E y * ( z ) E x ( z ) E y * ( z ) + E x * ( z ) E y ( z ) j ( E x ( z ) E y * ( z ) E x * ( z ) E y ( z ) ) )
σ ^ = 1 1 N ( i = 1 N Q i I i ) 2 + ( i = 1 N U i I i ) 2 + ( i = 1 N V i I i ) 2
T ( ω ) = exp ( i β ω σ 2 ) = ( 1 0 0 1 ) cos ( β 2 ω ) i ( r Q σ 1 + r U σ 2 + r V σ 3 ) sin ( β 2 ω )
E out ( k ) = ( j = 1 n e 2 i k z j ) I E i n ( k )
E s ( k ) = ( j = 1 n e 2 i k z j ) J 3 T 2 3 J 2 T I J 2 T 1 2 J 1 E i n ( k )
i d | E s + E r | 2 | E s E r | 2
σ ^ = 1 exp ( 1 S N R 1 )

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