Abstract

We report the impact of cascaded reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer induced penalties on coherently-detected 28 Gbaud polarization multiplexed m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PM m-ary QAM) WDM channels. We investigate the interplay between different higher-order modulation channels and the effect of filter shapes and bandwidth of (de)multiplexers on the transmission performance, in a segment of pan-European optical network with a maximum optical path of 4,560 km (80km x 57 spans). We verify that if the link capacities are assigned assuming that digital back propagation is available, 25% of the network connections fail using electronic dispersion compensation alone. However, majority of such links can indeed be restored by employing single-channel digital back-propagation employing less than 15 steps for the whole link, facilitating practical application of DBP. We report that higher-order channels are most sensitive to nonlinear fiber impairments and filtering effects, however these formats are less prone to ROADM induced penalties due to the reduced maximum number of hops. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a minimum filter Gaussian order of 3 and bandwidth of 35 GHz enable negligible excess penalty for any modulation order.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (6)

2010 (7)

2009 (1)

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

1999 (1)

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas, and T. E. Stern, “Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1414–1416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. Mathiopoulos and K. Feher, “Performance evaluation of a 512-QAM system in distorted channels,” IEE Proc. F Commun. Radar Signal Proc. 133(2), 199–204 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Borgne, “Comparison of high-level modulation schemes for high-capacity digital radio systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 33(5), 442–449 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alfiad, M. S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antoniades, N.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas, and T. E. Stern, “Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1414–1416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basch, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Behel, J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borgne, M.

M. Borgne, “Comparison of high-level modulation schemes for high-capacity digital radio systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 33(5), 442–449 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chbat, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chugtai, M. N.

Cotter, D.

de Man, E.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, L. B.

Ellis, A. D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Feher, K.

P. Mathiopoulos and K. Feher, “Performance evaluation of a 512-QAM system in distorted channels,” IEE Proc. F Commun. Radar Signal Proc. 133(2), 199–204 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Finkenzeller, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

Forzati, M.

Foschini, G. J.

Freiberger, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Ip, E.

Kramer, G.

Kuschnerov, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lankl, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

Li, G.

Liu, X.

Lord, A.

Lowery, A. J.

Mårtensson, J.

Mathiopoulos, P.

P. Mathiopoulos and K. Feher, “Performance evaluation of a 512-QAM system in distorted channels,” IEE Proc. F Commun. Radar Signal Proc. 133(2), 199–204 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meusburger, C.

Mukherjee, B.

Mussolin, M.

Nag, A.

Napoli, A.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otani, T.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas, and T. E. Stern, “Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1414–1416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

Peterson, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rafique, D.

Rehman, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roudas, I.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas, and T. E. Stern, “Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1414–1416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E. D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D. A.

Scott, R. P.

Shtaif, M.

Spaelter, S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spinnler, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stachowiak, J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stern, T. E.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas, and T. E. Stern, “Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1414–1416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

van den Borne, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040km field-deployed fiber with 10/40G neighbors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 615–617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiske, C. J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation setup for 28 Gbaud Gb/s PM-mQAM (m = 4, 16, 64) transmission system with L wavelengths and M spans per node, where z represents the node number.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

28-node Pan-European network topology. Link 1: London-to-Amsterdam, 7 spans, Link 2: Amsterdam-to-Brussels, 3 spans, Link 3: Brussels-to-Frankfurt, 6 spans. Link 4: Frankfurt-to-Munich, 6 spans, Link 5: Munich-to-Milan, 7 spans, Link 6: Milan-to-Rome, 9 spans, Link 7, Rome-to-Athens: 19 spans (80 km/span).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear tolerance of PM-mQAM in a dynamic mesh network after EDC. a) Colored: OSNRR at BER of 3.8x10−3 vs. Distance (Links traversed: 1(square), 2(circle), 3(up-tri), 4(down-tri), 5(left-tri), 6(right-tri), 7(diamond), horizontal lines (theoretical OSNRREQUIRED)), open: intermediate nodes, solid: destination nodes. Black: Received OSNR (black spheres), Line (theoretical received OSNR), Dotted Line (theoretical received OSNR with 5 dB margin). Up arrows indicate failed connections (corresponding to drop nodes)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Qeff as a function of network nodes for failed routes, shown by up-arrows in Fig. 5, for PM-mQAM in a dynamic mesh network. After EDC (black) and single-channel DBP (red: simplified, blue: full-precision 40 steps/span). Table shows the network parameters for each scenario and number of steps for simplified DBP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Qeff as a function of Gaussian filter order (35 GHz bandwidth) for a 6 dB margin from theoretical achievable OSNR. a) 4QAM; b) 16QAM; c) 64QAM. (up-arrows indicate that no errors were detected)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Qeff as a function of Gaussian filter bandwidth (and filter order) for worst-case OSNR margin seen in Fig. 5. a) 4QAM; b) 16QAM; c) 64QAM.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and Distance Constraints

Tables Icon

Table 2 Traffic Matrix (Each Element Represents the Modulation Order; Traffic Dropped and Added at Nodes Highlighted in Gray)

Metrics