Abstract

We demonstrated a simple method to photo-ionize barium atoms using 791 nm diode laser together with 310 nm UV LED. It solved the bottle-neck problem of previous method using 791 nm diode laser and 337 nm N 2 laser, whose ionization rate was limited by the repetition rate of N 2 laser. Compared with previous method, it has advantages of high efficiency together with simple and cheap setups. By tuning the frequency of 791 nm laser to be resonant with the desired isotope, isotope selective photo-ionization has been realized.

© 2011 OSA

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  2. P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. A. Dzuba and V. V. Flambaum, “Atomic optical clocks and search for variation of the fine-structure constant,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 034502 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Paul, “Electromagnetic traps for charged and neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 531–540 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Tanaka, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Selective loading and laser cooling of rare calcium isotope 43Ca+,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 195–200 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, and J. P. Young, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one-atom detection,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767–819 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Kulaga, J. Migdalek, and O. Bar, “Transition probabilities and lifetimes in neutral barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 4775–4784 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).
  25. P. Villemoes, A. Arnesen, F. Heijkenskjöld, and A. Wännström, “Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of 134–138Ba II by fast ion beam-laser spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 4289–4299 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. G. DeVoe and C. Kurtsiefer, “Experimental study of anomalous heating and trap instabilities in a microscopic 137Ba ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 063407 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Tanaka, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Selective loading and laser cooling of rare calcium isotope 43Ca+,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 195–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. G. DeVoe and C. Kurtsiefer, “Experimental study of anomalous heating and trap instabilities in a microscopic 137Ba ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 063407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Kulaga, J. Migdalek, and O. Bar, “Transition probabilities and lifetimes in neutral barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 4775–4784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba and V. V. Flambaum, “Atomic optical clocks and search for variation of the fine-structure constant,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 034502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, “Atomic clocks and variations of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3511–3514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. Villemoes, A. Arnesen, F. Heijkenskjöld, and A. Wännström, “Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of 134–138Ba II by fast ion beam-laser spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 4289–4299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Paul, “Electromagnetic traps for charged and neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 531–540 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).

1979

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, and J. P. Young, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one-atom detection,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Acton, M.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S. A.

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Albert, M.

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almendros, M.

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnesen, A.

P. Villemoes, A. Arnesen, F. Heijkenskjöld, and A. Wännström, “Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of 134–138Ba II by fast ion beam-laser spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 4289–4299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baig, M. A.

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balzer, C.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bar, O.

D. Kulaga, J. Migdalek, and O. Bar, “Transition probabilities and lifetimes in neutral barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 4775–4784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, P.

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, B. B.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brickman, K.-A.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brownnutt, M.

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchinger, F.

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, M. S.

A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Churchill, L. R.

A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coles, C.

P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dantan, A.

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deslauriers, L.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and C. Kurtsiefer, “Experimental study of anomalous heating and trap instabilities in a microscopic 137Ba ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 063407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drewsen, M.

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dzuba, V. A.

V. A. Dzuba and V. V. Flambaum, “Atomic optical clocks and search for variation of the fine-structure constant,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 034502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J.

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ettler, M.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fisk, P. T. H.

P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flambaum, V. V.

V. A. Dzuba and V. V. Flambaum, “Atomic optical clocks and search for variation of the fine-structure constant,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 034502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, P. F.

A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grundevik, P.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).

Gulde, S.

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, M.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).

Häffner, H.

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haljan, P. C.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hannemann, T.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heijkenskjöld, F.

P. Villemoes, A. Arnesen, F. Heijkenskjöld, and A. Wännström, “Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of 134–138Ba II by fast ion beam-laser spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 4289–4299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, M.

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hensinger, W. K.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herskind, P.

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Home, J. P.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hornekaer, L.

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hucul, D.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
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G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, and J. P. Young, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one-atom detection,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, I. S.

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalyar, M. A.

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katnik, S.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kielpinski, D.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, B. E.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kjærgaard, N.

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, R. N.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, S. D.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, and J. P. Young, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one-atom detection,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kulaga, D.

D. Kulaga, J. Migdalek, and O. Bar, “Transition probabilities and lifetimes in neutral barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 4775–4784 (2001).
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Kurtsiefer, C.

R. G. DeVoe and C. Kurtsiefer, “Experimental study of anomalous heating and trap instabilities in a microscopic 137Ba ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 063407 (2002).
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Lawn, M. A.

P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. J.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Letchumanan, V.

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindballe, J. J. T.

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, D. M.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, D. N.

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, M. J.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
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Maleki, L.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, “Atomic clocks and variations of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3511–3514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marler, J. P.

P. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, “Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity,” Nat. Phys. 5, 494–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsunishi, H

U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maunz, P.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, M. J.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meekhof, D. M.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Migdalek, J.

D. Kulaga, J. Migdalek, and O. Bar, “Transition probabilities and lifetimes in neutral barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 4775–4784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moehring, D. L.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

U. Tanaka, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Selective loading and laser cooling of rare calcium isotope 43Ca+,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 195–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, A.

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
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Mueller, A. C.

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
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Myatt, C. J.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, S.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
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Neugart, R.

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
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Neuhauser, W.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
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L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
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P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).

Olsson, T.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, G. Olsson, and T. Olsson, “Hyperfine-structure and isotope-shift measurements in the 6s5d ↔ 6p5d transitions of Ba I in the far-red spectral region,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl. 312, 1–9 (1983).

Otten, E. W.

K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paape, C.

C. Balzer, A. Braun, T. Hannemann, C. Paape, M. Ettler, W. Neuhauser, and Chr. Wunderlich, “Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041407 (2006).
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W. Paul, “Electromagnetic traps for charged and neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 531–540 (1990).
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G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, and J. P. Young, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one-atom detection,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prestage, J. D.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, “Atomic clocks and variations of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3511–3514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rafiq, M.

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, A.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, F.

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
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H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
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Rotter, D.

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, M. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackett, C. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sami-ul-Haq,

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6p1,3P1 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 2307–2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

S. Gulde, D. Rotter, P. Barton, F. Schmidt-Kaler, R. Blatt, and W. Hogervorst, “Simple and efficient photo-ionization of ions for precision ion-trapping experiments,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 861–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, C.

C. Schuck, M. Almendros, F. Rohde, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 765–771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sellars, M. J.

P. T. H. Fisk, M. J. Sellars, M. A. Lawn, and C. Coles, “Performance of a prototype microwave frequency standard based on laser-detected trapped 171Yb+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 519–527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, A. G.

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Staanum, P.

A. Mortensen, J. J. T. Lindballe, I. S. Jensen, P. Staanum, D. Voigt, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope shifts of the 4s21S0 → 4s5p1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p1P1 state in calcium,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, D. N.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, J. P.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steane, A. M.

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J. P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
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A. V. Steele, L. R. Churchill, P. F. Griffin, and M. S. Chapman, “Photoionization and photoelectric loading of barium ion traps,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 053404 (2005).
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Sterk, J.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stick, D.

L. Deslauriers, M. Acton, B. B. Blinov, K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, W. K. Hensinger, D. Hucul, S. Katnik, R. N. Kohn, P. J. Lee, M. J. Madsen, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, J. Sterk, M. Yeo, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Efficient photoionization loading of trapped ions with ultrafast pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

U. Tanaka, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Selective loading and laser cooling of rare calcium isotope 43Ca+,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 195–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thommesen, A. M.

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. C.

M. Brownnutt, V. Letchumanan, G. Wilpers, R. C. Thompson, P. Gill, and A. G. Sinclair, “Controlled photoionization loading of 88Sr+ for precision ion-trap experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 411–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, J. W.

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tjoelker, R. L.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, “Atomic clocks and variations of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3511–3514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turchette, Q. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

U. Tanaka, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Selective loading and laser cooling of rare calcium isotope 43Ca+,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 195–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Tanaka, H Matsunishi, I. Morita, and S. Urabe, “Isotope-selective trapping of rare calcium ions using high-power incoherent light sources for the second step of photo-ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 795–799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Videsen, Z.

N. Kjærgaard, L. Hornekaer, A. M. Thommesen, Z. Videsen, and M. Drewsen, “Isotope selective loading of an ion trap using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 207–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Madsen, S. Balslev, M. Drewsen, N. Kjærgaard, Z. Videsen, and J. W. Thomsen, “Measurements on photoionization of 3s3p1P1 magnesium atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 4981–4988 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Wendt, S. A. Ahmad, F. Buchinger, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, and E. W. Otten, “Relativistic J-dependence of the isotope shift in the 6s – 6p doublet of Ba II,” Z. Phys. A 318, 125–129 (1984).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level scheme of neutral barium and relevant wavelengths for photo-ionization. Solid lines indicate transitions interacted with relevant lasers in experiment, dotted line indicates the excitation threshold wavelength from state |2〉 to continuum, wavy lines indicate the spontaneous decay from state |2〉 to two D states (6s5d 3 D 1 and 6s5d3D 2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup to photo-ionize the barium atoms and cool the barium ions. (b) 138 Ba + Ion crystals we obtained using photo-ionization scheme 2, when the 791 nm laser power is P 791 = 22mW and the LED current is 19 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loading rate of 138 Ba + ions as a function of 791 nm laser power using (a) photo-ionization scheme 1 and (b) photo-ionization scheme 2. The experimental parameters are: repetition rate of N 2 laser is 20 Hz, LED driving current is 19 mA, barium oven temperature is 550 °C, and loading time is 10 s. The gray lines are the theoretical fitting results for these two ionization schemes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Loading rate of 138 Ba + ions as a function of (a) repetition rate of 337 nm N 2 laser, and (b) driving current of UV LED. Here, the power of 791 nm laser is 22 mW, other parameters are same as in Fig. 3. The gray lines are the theoretical fitting results for these two ionization schemes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Barium isotope crystals loaded and cooled down using photo-ionization scheme 2. The experimental parameters are: 791 nm laser power is 22 mW, UV LED driving current is 19 mA, barium oven temperature is 550 °C, and loading time is 10 s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Abundances of Naturally Occurring Barium Isotopes and Their Isotope Shifts Respecting to 138 Ba Atom and Ion

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n 1 d t = n 1 d ν σ a ( ν ) I ( ν ) + Γ 21 n 2 + n 2 d ν σ s ( ν ) I ( ν ) ,
d n 2 d t = n 1 d ν σ a ( ν ) I ( ν ) n 2 d ν σ s ( ν ) I ( ν ) Γ 21 n 2 β n 2 σ 310 F 310 n 2 ,
d n I 310 d t = σ 310 F 310 n 2 .
I ( ν ) = F 791 2 π Δ ν 2 e x p [ ( ν ν 0 ) 2 2 Δ ν 2 ]
d n 1 d t = n 1 d ν σ a ( ν ) I ( ν ) + Γ 21 n 2 + n 2 d ν σ s ( ν ) I ( ν ) ,
d n 2 d t = n 1 d ν σ a ( ν ) I ( ν ) n 2 d ν σ s ( ν ) I ( ν ) Γ 21 n 2 β n 2 .
n I 337 = σ 337 F 337 n 2 ρ τ 337 ,
N L 337 = A η N 0 n I 337 ,

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