Abstract

Rotating mirror systems based on the Miller Principle are a mainstay modality for ultra-high speed imaging within the range 1-25 million frames per second. Importantly, the true temporal accuracy of observations recorded in such cameras is sensitive to the framing rate that the system directly associates with each individual data acquisition. The purpose for the present investigation was to examine the validity of such system-reported frame rates in a widely used commercial system (a Cordin 550-62 model) by independently measuring the framing rate at the instant of triggering. Here, we found a small but significant difference between such measurements: the average discrepancy (over the entire spectrum of frame rates used) was found to be 0.66 ± 0.48%, with a maximum difference of 2.33%. The principal reason for this discrepancy was traced to non-optimized sampling of the mirror rotation rate within the system protocol. This paper thus serves three purposes: (i) we highlight a straightforward diagnostic approach to facilitate scrutiny of rotating-mirror system integrity; (ii) we raise awareness of the intrinsic errors associated with data previously acquired with this particular system and model; and (iii), we recommend that future control routines address the sampling issue by implementing real-time measurement at the instant of triggering.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. V. Parker and C. Roberts, High Speed Photography and Photonics, S. F. Ray, ed. (SPIE Press, 1997), Chap. 10.
  2. C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).
  5. Cordin 550 User’s Manual (Cordin Company, Inc, 2004)
  6. S. Palmer, Technical Advisor, Cordin Company Inc, (private communication, 2011)

2010 (1)

D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).

2003 (2)

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borsboom, J.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chin, C. T.

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, N.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Etoh, T. G.

D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).

Frijlink, M. E.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancee, C.

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancée, C.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lohse, D.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mastick, F.

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mastik, F.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parker, V.

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Son, D. V. T.

D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).

Tanaka, M.

D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).

Versluis, M.

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. de Jong, C. T. Chin, C. Lancee, J. Borsboom, F. Mastick, M. Versluis, D. Lohse, and V. Parker, “Brandaris 128: a rotating mirror digital camera with 128 frames at 25Mfps,” Proc. SPIE 4948, 342–347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(12), 5026–5034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

D. V. T. Son, T. G. Etoh, and M. Tanaka, “Toward 100 mega-frames per second: design of an ultimate ultra-high-speed image sensor,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10, 16–35 (2010).

Other (3)

Cordin 550 User’s Manual (Cordin Company, Inc, 2004)

S. Palmer, Technical Advisor, Cordin Company Inc, (private communication, 2011)

V. Parker and C. Roberts, High Speed Photography and Photonics, S. F. Ray, ed. (SPIE Press, 1997), Chap. 10.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic (not to scale) illustrating the key optical elements along the optical path. Light from the target is brought to a focus as close as possible to a facet on the pentagonal rotating mirror. The mirror itself serves to redirect the light onto a series of 62 CCDs arranged in two 72° arcs around the mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the independent measurement apparatus. BNC connectors were linked to extract the index pulse each time the first frame IR sensor (at the F0 CCD position) was illuminated by the continuous IR laser. This output was fed direct to the signal generator, which was programmed to produce a single sine pulse output upon each index pulse detected. The sine pulses were recorded in a downstream scope that was itself triggered by the Cordin camera’s ‘Flash 1’ output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lag-time between LED activation (driven off the Flash 1 port at the instant of camera triggering) as measured using the independent apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage difference between reported and measured values of framing rate. Positive values signify that system-reported values were greater than those measured independently by the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2, and it is clear that this observation held consistently over all frame rates. Error bars represent the standard deviation over multiple measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of the salient and distinct timings for various events that occur during operation of the Cordin camera, as a function of framing rate [and assumed to be framing at 1 million fps on this occasion]. The main (lower) x-axis time unit is in milliseconds, and two consecutive sampling events, separated by 100ms, are indicated (green arrows). The temporal window, as delineated by the orange dashed box, close to the instant of triggering (i.e. at red arrow at t = 0 on both scales) has been magnified by a factor of 1000 in the inset, such that the x-axis unit in the inset is in microseconds. The system recording time, Δt, as a function of framing rate is highlighted by the pink region [Δt = 64µs at 1M fps, as here]. The effective delay of the flash 1 port output (Fig. 3 data), again as a function of frame rate, is highlighted in purple. Positions of randomly allocated index pulses, separated by 64µs (i.e. Δt at 1M fps), are indicated by blue arrows on the inset axis.

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