Abstract

Scanning coherent diffraction microscopy (ptychography) is an emerging hard x-ray microscopy technique that yields spatial resolutions well below the lateral size of the probing nanobeam. Besides a high resolution image of the object, the complex wave field of the probe can be reconstructed at the position of the object. By verifying the consistency of several independent wave field measurements along the optical axis, we address the question of how well the reconstruction represents the nanobeam. With a single ptychogram the wave field can be properly determined over a large range along the optical axis, also at positions inaccessible otherwise.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J.-D. Grunwaldt and C. G. Schroer, “Hard and soft x-ray microscopy and tomography in catalysis: Bridging the different time and length scales,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 4741 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19, 1037–1050 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

2011 (2)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19, 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-D. Grunwaldt and C. G. Schroer, “Hard and soft x-ray microscopy and tomography in catalysis: Bridging the different time and length scales,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 4741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17, 2670–2685 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

2008 (5)

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1848 (1)

T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

Almendarez-Camarillo, A.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assoufid, L.

Bahtz, C.

T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

Baiker, A.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, M.

Benson, C.

Bergemann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bleuet, P.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohic, S.

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carmona, A.

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deves, G.

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dooryhée, E.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J. M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Frahm, R.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuhse, C.

T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

Gehrke, R.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giewekemeyer, K.

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19, 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gorniak, T.

Griesebock, B.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grunwaldt, J.-D.

J.-D. Grunwaldt and C. G. Schroer, “Hard and soft x-ray microscopy and tomography in catalysis: Bridging the different time and length scales,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 4741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grunze, M.

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Gulden, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Günzler, T. F.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haeffner, D.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hodeau, J.-L.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hönig, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khounsary, A. M.

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, V.

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, S. P.

T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

Küchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mashayekhi, A.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nolting, F.

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

Ortega, R.

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

Quitmann, C.

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

Rakete, C.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richwin, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenhahn, A.

Roth, S. V.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19, 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Salditt, S. P. Krueger, C. Fuhse, and C. Bahtz, “High-transmission planar x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 184801 (2008).

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-D. Grunwaldt and C. G. Schroer, “Hard and soft x-ray microscopy and tomography in catalysis: Bridging the different time and length scales,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 4741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, A.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B.

Snigirev, A.

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snigireva, I.

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stampanoni, M.

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

Stephan, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stribeck, N.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Hart, A.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard x-ray beam alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walter, P.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Welcomme, E.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, T. F. Günzler, B. Lengeler, M. Richwin, B. Griesebock, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Frahm, E. Ziegler, A. Mashayekhi, D. Haeffner, J.-D. Grunwaldt, and A. Baiker, “Mapping the chemical states of an element inside a sample using tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3360–3362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo, and B. Lengeler, “Mapping the local nanostructure inside a specimen by tomographic small angle x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 164102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J.-D. Grunwaldt and C. G. Schroer, “Hard and soft x-ray microscopy and tomography in catalysis: Bridging the different time and length scales,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 4741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

A. Carmona, P. Cloetens, G. Deves, S. Bohic, and R. Ortega, “Nano-imaging of trace metals by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence into dopaminergic single cells and neurite-like processes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J.-L. Hodeau, and P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, “Nanometer focusing properties of Fesnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Quitmann, C. David, F. Nolting, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP, Bristol, 2009), vol. 186.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color) (a) Ptychography: the sample is scanned trough the focused x-ray beam. Diffraction patterns are recorded in the far field at each scanning position. Ptychographic reconstruction: (b) phase of a test object (microchip [2]) and (c) reconstructed complex wave field both at position −500 μm upstream of the focal plane of the microscope. The rectangle in (b) delineates the area covered by the ptychographic scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color) First row: ptychographic reconstructions of the x-ray wave field measured independently at different positions from the focus along the optical axis. Second row: given the wave field in the focus (0 μm), the wave fields at the other positions are obtained by Fresnel-Kirchhoff propagation. Complex amplitudes are coded according to the color wheel. Comparing the propagated and reconstructed wave fields shows excellent agreement. The reconstructed projected vertical beam profile (intensity) is shown at the bottom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color) (a) illumination reconstructed (measured) at position −1000 μm upstream of the focus and (b) that obtained by propagation from the wave field in the focus (same as in Fig. 2). (c) Difference between reconstructed and propagated illumination at that position on the same color scale as in (a) and (b). (d) difference with 10× enhanced contrast. The 180° phase shift of the Fresnel zones (cf. color wheel) from upper right to lower left in the difference map indicates a (sub-pixel) misalignment along the lower-left-upper-right diagonal.

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