Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate unequal pulses delivered from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with net-normal dispersion. Two types of pulses with different durations, energies, and spectra coexist in the same ring cavity. The output spectrum exhibits a broadband base that corresponds to the main pulse and a small rectangular lump that corresponds to the additional satellite pulse. With the enhancement of pump power, the intensity of main pulse almost keeps unchanged while the satellite pulse nearly increases linearly. Based on experimental results, it is indicated that two different pulse shaping mechanisms coexist in laser cavity, where the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) and spectral filtering (SF) effect contribute to the formation of main pulse and satellite pulse, respectively.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (4)

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dynamics of Raman soliton during supercontinuum generation near the zero-dispersion wavelength of optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10443–10455 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Fiber lasers mode-locked due to nonlinear polarization evolution: golden mean of cavity length,” Laser Phys. 21(2), 272–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Wang, X. M. Liu, Y. K. Gong, D. Mao, and L. N. Duan, “Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7616–7624 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

2009 (7)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S. Smirnov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Latkin, “Generation of double-scale femto/pico-second optical lumps in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20707–20713 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Abdelalim, Y. Logvin, D. A. Khalil, and H. Anis, “Steady and oscillating multiple dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13128–13139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Olivier and M. Piché, “Origin of the bound states of pulses in the stretched-pulse fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 405–418 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, Ph. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of dissipative solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with large net-normal-dispersion and high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22401–22416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

B. G. Bale, J. N. Kutz, A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Spectral filtering for high-energy mode-locking in normal dispersion fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1763–1770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Theoretical study of the erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation,” Phys. Rev. A 67(1), 013802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

H. A. Haus and W. William, “Solitons in optical communications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 68(2), 423–444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched‐pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(2), 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, “Soliton fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(6), 417–419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abdelalim, M. A.

Abedin, K. S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Akhmediev, N. N.

Allen, G.

Amrani, F.

Anis, H.

Ankiewicz, A.

Bale, B. G.

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartl, M.

Bhadra, S. K.

Binhammer, T.

Buckley, J. R.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R.

Chen, C. J.

Chernov, A. I.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, N. B.

Chong, A.

Clark, W. G.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Dianov, E. M.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L. N.

Emons, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. K.

Gopinath, J. T.

Grein, M. E.

Grelu, Ph.

Haboucha, A.

Haus, H. A.

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-stabilized passive, harmonically mode-locked stretched-pulse erbium fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1758–1760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus and W. William, “Solitons in optical communications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 68(2), 423–444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched‐pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(2), 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hausmann, K.

Hideur, A.

Hu, X. H.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-stabilized passive, harmonically mode-locked stretched-pulse erbium fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1758–1760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched‐pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(2), 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. A.

Khalil, D. A.

Knox, W. H.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kobtsev, S.

Kobtsev, S. M.

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Fiber lasers mode-locked due to nonlinear polarization evolution: golden mean of cavity length,” Laser Phys. 21(2), 272–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M. W.

Komarov, A.

Konov, V. I.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Konyashchenko, A. V.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kracht, D.

Kryukov, P. G.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kukarin, S.

Kuse, N.

Kutz, J. N.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Lang, T.

Latkin, A.

Leblond, H.

Lecaplain, C.

Limpert, J.

Lin, A.

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, X. M.

L. R. Wang, X. M. Liu, Y. K. Gong, D. Mao, and L. N. Duan, “Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7616–7624 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Liu and D. Mao, “Compact all-fiber high-energy fiber laser with sub-300-fs duration,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8847–8852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobach, A. S.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Logvin, Y.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Lu, H.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. Q.

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D.

Menyuk, C. R.

Morgner, U.

Neumann, J.

Nomura, Y.

Obraztsova, E. D.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, M.

Ortaç, B.

Ozawa, A.

Palmer, G.

Piché, M.

Renninger, W. H.

Roy, S.

Saitoh, K.

Salhi, M.

Sanchez, F.

Schultze, M.

Shu, C.

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

Smirnov, S. V.

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Fiber lasers mode-locked due to nonlinear polarization evolution: golden mean of cavity length,” Laser Phys. 21(2), 272–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Sun, K. X.

Tam, H. Y.

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched‐pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(2), 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tausenev, A. V.

A. V. Tausenev, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, V. I. Konov, P. G. Kryukov, A. V. Konyashchenko, and E. M. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Turitsyn, S.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wandt, D.

Wang, L. R.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Wang, X. M. Liu, Y. K. Gong, D. Mao, and L. N. Duan, “Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7616–7624 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

X. M. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. R. Wang, A. Lin, K. Q. Lu, T. Y. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1357–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Wicks, G. W.

William, W.

H. A. Haus and W. William, “Solitons in optical communications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 68(2), 423–444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the fiber ring laser

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra (a) of CW and single pulse. Autocorrelation traces (b), oscilloscope trace (c), and RF spectra (d) of the single pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse evolution versus pump power in the frequency (a) and temporal (b) domain. Oscilloscope trace (c) and pulse duration (d) of the unequal pulses. The inset is the autocorrelation traces of the main pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output spectra (a) and oscilloscope traces (b) at different pump powers and PC states

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