Abstract

We report quantum cascade laser (QCL) master-oscillator power-amplifiers (MOPAs) at 300 K reaching output power of 1.5 W for tapered devices and 0.9 W for untapered devices. The devices display single-longitudinal-mode emission at λ = 7.26 µm and single-transverse-mode emission at TM00. The maximum amplification factor is 12 dB for the tapered devices.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, M. F. Witinski, P. Wang, T. J. Tague, Jr., and F. Capasso, “Fourier transform spectrometers utilizing mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference: 2010 Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO/QELS 2010, 5500620.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff spectroscopy of surface adsorbed chemicals,” Anal. Chem. 81(5), 1952–1956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aidam, R.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandelow, U.

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belyanin, A.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bewley, W. W.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bour, D. P.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bronner, W.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brox, O.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bugge, F.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Canedy, C. L.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corzine, S.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corzine, S. W.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darvish, S. R.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Degreif, K.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A.

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. J.

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, J.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, F.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ginolas, A.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gökden, B.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haddadi, A.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Höfler, G.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfler, G. E.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hugger, S.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinzer, M.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, A.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D. C.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lichtner, M.

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lösch, R.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nolde, J. A.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, K.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radziunas, M.

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ressel, P.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, F.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seetharaman, A.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senesac, L. R.

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff spectroscopy of surface adsorbed chemicals,” Anal. Chem. 81(5), 1952–1956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slivken, S.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spreemann, M.

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff spectroscopy of surface adsorbed chemicals,” Anal. Chem. 81(5), 1952–1956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troccoli, M.

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Neste, C. W.

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff spectroscopy of surface adsorbed chemicals,” Anal. Chem. 81(5), 1952–1956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vurgaftman, I.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, A. K.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff spectroscopy of surface adsorbed chemicals,” Anal. Chem. 81(5), 1952–1956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gökden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Broad area photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting 34 W at λ~4.36 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4 µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 160–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

M. Spreemann, M. Lichtner, M. Radziunas, U. Bandelow, and H. Wenzel, “Measurement and simulation of distributed-feedback tapered master-oscillator power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 609–616 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. J. Evans, and M. Razeghi, “High-performance continuous-wave operation of λ~4.6 µm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 747–754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 µm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415(6874), 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, “Imaging standoff detection of explosives using widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent coupling of multiple transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE Proc. (1)

B. Gökden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” SPIE Proc. 7945, 79450C, 79450C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed., chapter 16 (Oxford University Press, 2006).

L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, M. F. Witinski, P. Wang, T. J. Tague, Jr., and F. Capasso, “Fourier transform spectrometers utilizing mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference: 2010 Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO/QELS 2010, 5500620.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of a MOPA with 1° tapered amplifier. The DFB section is kept at 900 mA. The inset shows an illustration of a MOPA device. The light intensity distribution (false colors) has been calculated using a finite-difference time-domain technique. The device geometry is indicated by grey lines. The DFB laser acts as the seed laser while the tapered section is a single-pass traveling wave amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) L-I characteristics for different currents in the MO DFB section at T = 300 K. b) Comparison of characteristics for two MOPAs with tapered and untapered PAs on a current-density scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light-Current-Voltage characteristic for a 3mm long Fabry-Perot cavity device fabricated from the same wafer as the QCL MOPA devices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field measurements in the chip plane for two different taper angles. The PA facet widths are 15 μm (untapered) and 47 μm (1° taper angle). The master oscillator DFB section current is close to rollover (860 mA). Solid lines represent Gaussian fitting curves.

Equations (3)

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j t h = α w + α m Γ g + j t r a n s ,
P o u t = P i n e [ ( α w + g Γ ( j j t r a n s ) ) d ] ,
P o u t = P i n e α w d e g Γ ( j j t r a n s ) d = P t e g Γ ( j j t r a n s ) d

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