Abstract

In the field of adaptive optics, multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can greatly increase the size of the corrected field of view (FoV) and also extend sky coverage. By applying layer oriented MCAO (LO-MCAO) [4], together with multiple guide stars (up to 20) and pyramid wavefront sensors [7], LINC-NIRVANA (L-N for short) [1] will provide two AO-corrected beams to a Fizeau interferometer to achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution on the Large Binocular Telescope. This paper presents first laboratory results of the AO performance achieved with the high layer wavefront sensor (HWS). This sensor, together with its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349), is being operated in one of the L-N laboratories. AO reference stars, spread across a 2 arc-minute FoV and with aberrations resulting from turbulence introduced at specific layers in the atmosphere, are simulated in this lab environment. This is achieved with the Multi-Atmosphere Phase screen and Stars (MAPS) [2] unit. From the wavefront data, the approximate residual wavefront error after correction has been calculated for different turbulent layer altitudes and wind speeds. Using a somewhat undersampled CCD, the FWHM of stars in the nearly 2 arc-minute FoV has also been measured. These test results demonstrate that the high layer wavefront sensor of LINC-NIRVANA will be able to achieve uniform AO correction across a large FoV.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).
  2. D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).
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  4. Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).
  5. W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K Robert. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics , Second Edition (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).
  9. F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.
  10. A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

2009

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

2008

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

2007

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

2005

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

John W. Harddy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes , Second Edition (Oxford University Press, New York, 1998).

1997

K Robert. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics , Second Edition (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).

1976

Andersen, D.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, Paolo

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Baruffolo, Andrea

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Baumeister, e, H.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, H.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

Beckmann, U.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behrend, J.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, Delabre

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Bertram, T.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berwein, J.

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

Bizenberger, P.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boehnhardt, H.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, f, F.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, F.

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

Carbillet, M.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christoph, Frank

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Conan, R.

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diolaiti, E.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driebe, T.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, A.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Egner, S.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enrico, Fedrigo

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Enrico, Marchetti

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Farinato, J.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaessler, W.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, B.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harddy, John W.

John W. Harddy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes , Second Edition (Oxford University Press, New York, 1998).

Heininger, M.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T. M.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

Herbst, T.M.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, K.-H.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johann, Kolb

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Kittmann, F.

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

Kuerster, M.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laun, W.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lizon, Jean-Louis

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Marchesi, Massimiliano

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Masciadri, E.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meschke, D.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

Mohr, L.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noll, Robert J.

Norbert, Hubin

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Nubaum, E.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oberti, Sylvain

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Ragazzoni, R.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, Roland

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Rix, H.-W.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robert, Donaldson

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Robert, K

K Robert. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics , Second Edition (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).

Rohloff, R.-R.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roland, Brast

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Salinari, P.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, Joana

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Schertel, D.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, L.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soci, R.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soenke, Christian

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Storz, C.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Straubmeier, C.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tordo, Sebastien

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Vernet, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viard, E.

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weigelt, G.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zealouk, L.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

Astronomy & Astrophysics

A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, E. Viard, N. Hubin, and R. Conan, “Optimized modal tomography in adaptive optics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comptes Rendus Physique

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T.M. Herbst, D. Andersen, e, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, f, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straubmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealouk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nubaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward Extremely Large Telescopes,” Comptes Rendus Physique 6, 1129–1138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger

Marchetti Enrico, Brast Roland, Delabre Bernard, Donaldson Robert, Fedrigo Enrico, Frank Christoph, Hubin Norbert, Kolb Johann, Jean-Louis Lizon, Massimiliano Marchesi, Sylvain Oberti, Roland Reiss, Joana Santos, Christian Soenke, Sebastien Tordo, Andrea Baruffolo, Paolo Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium, “On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator,” The Messenger 129, 8–13 (2007).

Other

K Robert. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics , Second Edition (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).

F. Kittmann, F. Briegel, J. Berwein, and W. Gaessler, “IDL-based AO Control Software for Laboratory Tests,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII ASP Conference Series , David A. Bohlender, Daniel Durand, and Patrick Dowler, ed. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), pp. 326–329.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II , Ian S. McLean and Mark M. Casali, eds., Proc. SPIE7014, 70141A (2008).

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” in Adaptive Optics Systems II , Brent L. Ellerbroek, Michael Hart, Norbert Hubin, and Peter L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE7736, 773646 (2010).

John W. Harddy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes , Second Edition (Oxford University Press, New York, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The meta-pupil images for a conjugation altitude of 4km with 1, 2, 3 and 4 guide stars. Note the larger circle is the meta-pupil

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The laboratory setup of the LINC-NIRVANA HWS. The corresponding optical path is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The optical path of the laboratory setup of LINC-NIRVANA. The science targets and the guide stars are simulated by different fibers connected to a rotating fiber plate in MAPS. The details are described in the section labeled “Asterism.”

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The AO correction for the science targets in the large FoV from the patrol camera at 10km turbulent height layer and wind speed of 0.15 m/sec. The corresponding FoV of the 5 science targets (blue circles) and surrounding 4 guide stars (green squares) are the same as shown in the fiber plate in the lower right of the figure. The blue star shows the PSF of SS-1 measured without a phase screen. Note that for each science target, the same plot scale is used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The RMS WFE versus time at different atmosphere altitudes and different wind speeds in open and closed loop. The atmosphere altitudes and wind speeds are labeled in each plot. In closed loop, a gain of 0.5 is used. The DM and WFS were fixed conjugate to 4 km for all cases. The wind speed for the open loop curves was 2 m/sec for all altitudes, although the curves are very similar for the other speeds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The FWHM measured for each of the five science targets in open and closed loop for turbulence altitude 10 km and wind speed of 0.15 m/sec. The mean of these five measured values is given (“all”). To give an indication of the non-common path aberrations in the system, an open loop measurement taken with no phase screen (mean of all five stars) is given as well, indicated by the triangle symbol.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The statistical performance of the science targets in closed loop in different layers. All data were taken at a simulated wind speed of 0.15m/sec.

Equations (1)

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f G = 0.43 v w i n d r o

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