Abstract

We report the observation of longitudinally uniform plasma waveguide with a controlled length of up to nearly 5 mm, in argon clustered gas jet. This self-channeling plasma is obtained using a 35 mJ, 30 fs FWHM pulse as a pump laser pulse to create the plasma channel. A 1 mJ pulse of the same laser is used for probing the plasma channels using interferometric diagnostics. The radial distribution of the electron density confirms the formation of a plasma waveguide. Clustered argon enhances the absorption efficiency of femtosecond pulses which enables the use of pump pulses of only 35 mJ, approximately 10 times less energy than required for heating conventional gas targets. The plasma channel length is controlled by the laser focus point (F), the laser intensity (I), the pump-probe delay time (t) and the laser height from a nozzle (z). The variation of the electron density for these parameters is also studied. We found that the highest density of 1.2 x 1019 cm−3 was obtained at I = 5.2 x 1016 W/cm2, z = 2 mm and t = 7.6 ns. It was demonstrated that by using a clustered jet, both the plasma waveguide length and the plasma density could be controlled.

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, B. Kim, B. Ahn, and D.-E. Kim, “Experimental investigation on argon cluster sizes for conical nozzles with different opening angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 1 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/108/064329/1 .

J. F. Herbstman and A. J. Hunt, “High-aspect ratio nanochannel formation by single femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16840–16848 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

B. D. Layer, A. G. York, S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Periodic index-modulated plasma waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4263–4267 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, B. Kim, B. Ahn, and D.-E. Kim, “Pressure dependence of argon cluster size for different nozzle geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 053507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Y. Kim, H. M. Milchberg, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, B. D. Layer, and H. Sheng, “Clustered gases as a medium for efficient plasma waveguide generation,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364(1840), 647–661 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kumarappan, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Guiding of intense laser pulses in plasma waveguides produced from efficient, femtosecond end-pumped heating of clustered gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 205004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and Y. Kishimoto, “Optimized Energetic Particle Emissions from Xe Cluster in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 061201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

W. G. John Tisch, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in an ionized medium using a buffer gas of exploding atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 041802(R) (2000).

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant self-trapping and absorption of intense bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3085–3088 (2000), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i14/p3085_1 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (4)

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Plasma waveguide formation in predissociated clustering gases,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 322–324 (1998), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-23-5-322 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Man, J. Duan, and T. M. Yue, “Dynamic characteristics of gas jets from subsonic and supersonic slit nozzles for high pressure gas laser cutting,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(8), 497–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

V. Malka, E. D. Wispelaere, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, R. Bonadio, C. Coulaud, and R. Haroutunian, “channel Formation in Long Laser Pulse Interaction with a Helium Gas Jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2979–2982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Clark and H. M. Milchberg, “Time- and Space-Resolved Density Evolution of the Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2373–2376 (1997), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v78/i12/p2373_1 .
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

C. W. Leemans, “Siders, E. Esarey, N. E. Andreev, G. Shvets, and W. B. Mori, “Plasma Guiding and Wakefield Generation for S econd-Generation Experiments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 24 (2), 331–342 (1996), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=509997 .
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. Denavit and D. W. Phillion, “Laser ionization and heating of gas targets for long-scale-length instability experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1(6), 1971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. McPherson, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-photon induced x-ray emission at 4-5 keV from Xe atoms with multiple core vacancies,” Nature 370(6491), 631–634 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Borisov, X. Shi, V. B. Karpov, V. V. Korobkin, J. C. Solem, O. B. Shiryaev, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Stable self-channeling of intense ultraviolet pulses in underdense plasma, producing channels exceeding 100 Rayleigh lengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 1941–1947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light pipe for high intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2409–2412 (1993), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v71/i15/p2409_1 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

O. F. Hagena, “Cluster ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2374 (1992), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1142933 .
[CrossRef]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

O. F. Hagena, “Condensation in Free Jets: Comparison of Rare Gases and Metals,” Z. Phys. D 4(3), 291–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster Formation in Expanding Supersonic Jets: Effect of Pressure, Temperature, Nozzle Size, and Test Gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56(5), 1793 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.

G. Chen, B. Kim, B. Ahn, and D.-E. Kim, “Experimental investigation on argon cluster sizes for conical nozzles with different opening angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 1 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/108/064329/1 .

G. Chen, B. Kim, B. Ahn, and D.-E. Kim, “Pressure dependence of argon cluster size for different nozzle geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 053507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and Y. Kishimoto, “Optimized Energetic Particle Emissions from Xe Cluster in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 061201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amiranoff, F.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Malka, E. D. Wispelaere, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, R. Bonadio, C. Coulaud, and R. Haroutunian, “channel Formation in Long Laser Pulse Interaction with a Helium Gas Jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2979–2982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antici, P.

M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Antonsen, T. M.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoyama, M.

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G. Chen, B. Kim, B. Ahn, and D.-E. Kim, “Experimental investigation on argon cluster sizes for conical nozzles with different opening angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 1 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/108/064329/1 .

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X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
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W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
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X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
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Lompré, L. A.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
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J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X. B.

J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magunov, A. I.

K. Y. Kim, H. M. Milchberg, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
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Malka, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
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Malka, V.

V. Malka, E. D. Wispelaere, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, R. Bonadio, C. Coulaud, and R. Haroutunian, “channel Formation in Long Laser Pulse Interaction with a Helium Gas Jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2979–2982 (1997).
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H. C. Man, J. Duan, and T. M. Yue, “Dynamic characteristics of gas jets from subsonic and supersonic slit nozzles for high pressure gas laser cutting,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(8), 497–509 (1998).
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T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
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Marquès, J.-R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
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Mason, M. B.

T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
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McNaught, S. J.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 056402 (2001).
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McPherson, A.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Miao, J. W.

J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Migel, J. L.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
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B. D. Layer, A. G. York, S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Periodic index-modulated plasma waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4263–4267 (2009).
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K. Y. Kim, H. M. Milchberg, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066403 (2006).
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H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, B. D. Layer, and H. Sheng, “Clustered gases as a medium for efficient plasma waveguide generation,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364(1840), 647–661 (2006).
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V. Kumarappan, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Guiding of intense laser pulses in plasma waveguides produced from efficient, femtosecond end-pumped heating of clustered gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 205004 (2005).
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I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
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K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 023401 (2003).
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K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3210 (2003).
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H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant self-trapping and absorption of intense bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3085–3088 (2000), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i14/p3085_1 .
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T. R. Clark and H. M. Milchberg, “Time- and Space-Resolved Density Evolution of the Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2373–2376 (1997), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v78/i12/p2373_1 .
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J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
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K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant self-trapping and absorption of intense bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3085–3088 (2000), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i14/p3085_1 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
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T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
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K. Y. Kim, H. M. Milchberg, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. B. Borisov, X. Shi, V. B. Karpov, V. V. Korobkin, J. C. Solem, O. B. Shiryaev, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Stable self-channeling of intense ultraviolet pulses in underdense plasma, producing channels exceeding 100 Rayleigh lengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 1941–1947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. McPherson, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-photon induced x-ray emission at 4-5 keV from Xe atoms with multiple core vacancies,” Nature 370(6491), 631–634 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romagnani, L.

M. Nakatsutsumi, J.-R. Marquès, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, J. L. Feugeas, T. Lin, Ph. Nicolaï, L. Romagnani, R. Kodama, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging,” Nat. Phys. 6(12), 1010–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C.

Rousseaux, C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Migel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of Subpicosecond Relativistic Laser Pulse Self-Channeling in an Underdense Preformed Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(8), 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. B.

W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shadwick, B. A.

W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y. L.

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, H.

H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, B. D. Layer, and H. Sheng, “Clustered gases as a medium for efficient plasma waveguide generation,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364(1840), 647–661 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, M. G.

J. F. Han, C. W. Yanga, J. W. Miao, J. F. Lu, M. Liu, X. B. Luo, and M. G. Shi, “The spatial distribution of argon clusters in gas jet,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56(3), 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

Shiryaev, O. B.

A. B. Borisov, X. Shi, V. B. Karpov, V. V. Korobkin, J. C. Solem, O. B. Shiryaev, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Stable self-channeling of intense ultraviolet pulses in underdense plasma, producing channels exceeding 100 Rayleigh lengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 1941–1947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skobelev, I. Y.

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skobelev, I. Yu.

K. Y. Kim, H. M. Milchberg, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. A.

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Plasma waveguide formation in predissociated clustering gases,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 322–324 (1998), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-23-5-322 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solem, J. C.

A. B. Borisov, X. Shi, V. B. Karpov, V. V. Korobkin, J. C. Solem, O. B. Shiryaev, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Stable self-channeling of intense ultraviolet pulses in underdense plasma, producing channels exceeding 100 Rayleigh lengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 1941–1947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, O. B. Shiryaev, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, J. C. Solem, T. S. Luk, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5830–5845 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springate, E.

T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Strickland, D.

Thompson, B. D.

A. McPherson, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-photon induced x-ray emission at 4-5 keV from Xe atoms with multiple core vacancies,” Nature 370(6491), 631–634 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, C.

Ueda, H.

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and Y. Kishimoto, “Optimized Energetic Particle Emissions from Xe Cluster in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 061201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varma, S.

Volfbeyn, P.

W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, B. C.

Wilson, K. R.

Wispelaere, E. D.

V. Malka, E. D. Wispelaere, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, R. Bonadio, C. Coulaud, and R. Haroutunian, “channel Formation in Long Laser Pulse Interaction with a Helium Gas Jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2979–2982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wurtele, J. S.

W. P. Leemans, P. Volfbeyn, K. Z. Guo, S. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, P. B. Lee, J. S. Wurtele, and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators: Wakefield excitation, channel guiding, and laser triggered particle injection,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1615–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

S. B. Hansen, K. B. Fournier, A. Y. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and K. Yamakawa, “Measurement of 2l-nl’ x-ray transitions from approximately 1 μm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and Y. Kishimoto, “Optimized Energetic Particle Emissions from Xe Cluster in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 061201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Walker, C. Toth, D. N. Fittinghoff, T. Guo, D.-E. Kim, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, K. Yamakawa, K. R. Wilson, and C. Barty, “A 50 EW/cm;2 Ti:sapphire laser system for studying relativistic light-matter interactions,” Opt. Express 5(10), 196–202 (1999).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The fs laser system used for the pump–probe plasma channel of argon gas jet. (b) The plasma channel setup. Symbols: half wave plate (HWP), wave plate (WP), polarizer (P), Pockels cell (PC), beam splitter (BS), mirror (M), acoustic-optical-modulator (AOM), beam expander (BE), isolator (ISO), grating (G), Lens (L), nozzle (N), Retro-reflector (RF) Ti: sapphire rod (Ti). (c) The side cross-sectional view of the supersonic slit nozzle. Nozzle geometries (d = 0.5 mm, D = 5.0 mm, L = 5.0 mm), F the laser focus point distance from the axial midpoint of the nozzle, z the laser axial height from the surface of the nozzle and α = 24.2° the half opening angle of the nozzle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Interferometric plasma channel image, (b) Plasma channel real scattered light CCD image, (c) The radial distribution of the electron density. The length of the constructed plasma channel is 4.5 mm using 800 nm 30 fs pulses with I = 5.2 x 1016 W/cm2, t = 7.6 ns, and z = 2 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The channel length change with the focus point (F) using laser intensity 5.2 x 1016 W/cm2 and delay time t = 7.6 ns between pump and probe and height z = 2 mm and Ar baking pressure 75 bars. (b) The channel length change with delay time (t) between the pump and probe pulses using different laser energies at z = 2 mm for clustered Ar jet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The plasma channel length change with laser height (z) at different laser intensities for t = 7.6 ns using clustered Ar jet with backing pressure of 75 bars. (b) The radial distribution of electron density for different pump-probe delay times at optimum conditions for plasma channel length of 4.7 mm.

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