Abstract

We demonstrate the broadening of fundamental resonance in terahertz metamaterial by successive insertion of metal rings in the original unit cell of a split ring resonator (SRR) forming an inter connected nested structure. With the subsequent addition of each inner ring, the fundamental resonance mode shows gradual broadening and blue shift. For a total of four rings in the structure the resonance linewidth is enhanced by a factor of four and the blue shift is as large as 316 GHz. The dramatic increase in fundamental resonance broadening and its blue shifting is attributed to the decrease in the effective inductance of the entire SRR structure with addition of each smaller ring. We also observe that while the fundamental resonance is well preserved, the dipolar mode resonance undergoes multiple splittings with the addition of each ring in the nest. Such planar metamaterials, possessing broadband resonant response in the fundamental mode of operation, could have potential applications for extending the properties of metamaterials over a broader frequency range of operations.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
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  4. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

D. R. Chowdhury, R. Singh, M. Reiten, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Tailored resonator coupling for modifying the terahertz metamaterial response,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10679–10685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, N.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Burger, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. C.

Chowdhury, D. R.

Dai, J.

Dolling, G.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exter, M.

Fattinger, C.

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gu, J.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, N. R.

He, M.

Highstrete, C.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

Jansen, C.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Klein, M. W.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Lee, M.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, C.

Meyrath, T. P.

Ng, B.

O’Hara, J. F.

Padilla, W.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiten, M.

Reiten, M. T.

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. P. Meyrath, M. He, H. Giessen, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Spiral-type terahertz antennas and the manifestation of the Mushiake principle,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9971–9980 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy Chowdhury, D.

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

D. R. Chowdhury, R. Singh, M. Reiten, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Tailored resonator coupling for modifying the terahertz metamaterial response,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10679–10685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zheludev, N. I.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

D. R. Chowdhury, R. Singh, M. Reiten, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Tailored resonator coupling for modifying the terahertz metamaterial response,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10679–10685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path towards high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high-Q factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Polarization and angle dependent terahertz metamaterials with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, D. Roy Chowdhury, J. Zhou, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and A. K. Azad, “Resonance tuning behaviour in closely spaced inhomogeneous bilayer metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

W. Padilla, M. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Computer Simulation Technology (CST), Darmstadt, Germany.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscopic images of the fabricated metamaterial samples. (a) Original SRR unit cell termed as MM1, (b) MM2 with one inner ring, (c) MM3 with two inner rings, (d) MM4 with three inner rings The periodicity of each sample is P = 58 µm. The direction of the electric field and the magnetic field of the incident THz beam are indicated in (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission amplitudes for the samples (a) MM1, (b) MM2, (c) MM3, and (d) MM4. LC denotes the first fundamental resonance and it arises from the circular currents flowing in the metallic SRRs. DP1, DP2, DP3 and DP4 denotes the dipolar resonances after splitting. Dipolar resonances are defined in the text and can be identified through numerical simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) and simulated (b) fundamental resonances are shown together for all the MM structures. (c) Measured and simulated linewidth of the resonance at half maxima point along with the resonance frequency. (d) Quality factor (Q) along with the resonance transmission minima with increase in number of the rings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface current distributions at the fundamental resonance mode for MM1 (a), MM2 (b), and MM3 (c), respectively. (d) Surface currents in MM1 at 1 THz dipolar resonance mode, (e) and (f) are current distributions in MM2 for resonance modes at 0.92 THz and 1.2 THz respectively. The black dashed line is inserted along the metal arms to serve as a guide to the eye to capture the trend of surface currents.

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