Abstract

A good solution to the reflective display of color has been a major challenge for the display industry, with very limited color gamuts demonstrated to date. Conventional side-by-side red, green and blue color filters waste two-thirds of incident light. The alternative of stacking cyan, magenta and yellow layers is also challenging – a 10% loss per layer compounds to nearly 50% overall. Here we demonstrate an architecture that interleaves absorbing-to-clear shutters with matched wavelength selective reflectors. This increases color gamut by reducing losses and more cleanly separating the color channels, and gives much wider choice of electro-optic colorants.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. MacAdam, “Maximum visual efficiency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25(11), 361–367 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Ball, Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color, (University of Chicago Press, 2001).
  6. G. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics, (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975).
  7. D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4x4 matrix formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kitson, A. Geisow, T. Taphouse, and Hewlett-Packard Labs, Bristol, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Mimicking the optics of Morpho butterfly wings: highly transparent diffuse reflectors.”
  9. D. Davis and A. Kahn, X.Y. Huang and J.W. Doane, “Eight-color high resolution reflective cholesteric LCDs” SID Symposium Digest 29, 901 (1998).
  10. E. Kishi, Y. Matsuda, Y. Uno, A. Ogawa, T. Goden, N. Ukigaya, M. Nakanishi, T. Ikeda, H. Matsuda, and K. Eguchi, “Development of in-plane EPD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 31, 24–27.
  11. R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. CIE No. 15.2. Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 1986)
  16. K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, A. Hotta, Y. Nakai, T. Ohtake, and K. Sunohara, “Optical and color design of the reflective three-layer guest-host color LCD” Digest of Technical Papers. 1996 International Workshop on Active-Matrix Liquid-Crystal Displays in conjunction with IDW'96, 333–6 (1996)
  17. D. Coates, “53.1: Invited Paper: recent advances in tiled cholesteric billboard displays,” SID Symposium Digest 39, 799 (2008)

2010 (1)

C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1935 (1)

Akiyama, M.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amb, C. M.

C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaujuge, P. M.

C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berreman, D. W.

Clapp, L.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, J. J.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, S.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, B. J.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiske, T. G.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geisow, A.

S. Kitson, A. Geisow, T. Taphouse, and Hewlett-Packard Labs, Bristol, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Mimicking the optics of Morpho butterfly wings: highly transparent diffuse reflectors.”

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. A.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikenfeld, J.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, A.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwanaga, H.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. R.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S.

S. Kitson, A. Geisow, T. Taphouse, and Hewlett-Packard Labs, Bristol, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Mimicking the optics of Morpho butterfly wings: highly transparent diffuse reflectors.”

Kreit, E.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Masazumi, N.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milarcik, A.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naito, K.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishiguchi, K.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, T.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raj, B.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. R.

C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, R.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Silverstein, L. D.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, A.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sunohara, K.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taphouse, T.

S. Kitson, A. Geisow, T. Taphouse, and Hewlett-Packard Labs, Bristol, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Mimicking the optics of Morpho butterfly wings: highly transparent diffuse reflectors.”

Taylor, G. N.

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tran, H.

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, D. L.

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, E.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

C. M. Amb, P. M. Beaujuge, and J. R. Reynolds, “Spray-processable blue-to-highly transmissive switching polymer electrochromes via the donor-acceptor approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(6), 724–728 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishiguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa, and T. Taniguchi, “Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sunohara, K. Naito, S. Shimizu, M. Akiyama, M. Tanaka, Y. Nakai, A. Sugahara, K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, T. Ohtake, A. Hotta, S. Enomoto, and H. Yamada, “Reflective color LCD composed of stacked films of encapsulated liquid crystal (SFELIC),” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 6(4), 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. G. Fiske, J. J. Colegrove, A. Lewis, H. Tran, L. D. Silverstein, G. P. Crawford, and J. R. Kelly, “Advances and applications for color HPDLC reflective technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4022, 216–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

P. Ball, Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color, (University of Chicago Press, 2001).

G. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics, (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975).

S. Kitson, A. Geisow, T. Taphouse, and Hewlett-Packard Labs, Bristol, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Mimicking the optics of Morpho butterfly wings: highly transparent diffuse reflectors.”

D. Davis and A. Kahn, X.Y. Huang and J.W. Doane, “Eight-color high resolution reflective cholesteric LCDs” SID Symposium Digest 29, 901 (1998).

E. Kishi, Y. Matsuda, Y. Uno, A. Ogawa, T. Goden, N. Ukigaya, M. Nakanishi, T. Ikeda, H. Matsuda, and K. Eguchi, “Development of in-plane EPD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 31, 24–27.

CIE No. 15.2. Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 1986)

K. Taira, H. Iwanaga, A. Hotta, Y. Nakai, T. Ohtake, and K. Sunohara, “Optical and color design of the reflective three-layer guest-host color LCD” Digest of Technical Papers. 1996 International Workshop on Active-Matrix Liquid-Crystal Displays in conjunction with IDW'96, 333–6 (1996)

D. Coates, “53.1: Invited Paper: recent advances in tiled cholesteric billboard displays,” SID Symposium Digest 39, 799 (2008)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorbance spectra for the yellow, magenta and cyan dye doped liquid crystal mixtures used in this paper. Details are in the main text. (b) Reflectivity spectra for the blue and green ILRs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The architecture of the enhanced subtractive display, showing a stack of yellow, magenta and cyan electro-optical layers, interleaved with spectrally selective diffuse reflectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The modeled reflectivity of a standard reflector design (LH)10 (black) and an optimized design (red). The optimized design has much lower reflectivity in the sidebands between 500 and 650nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstrating the effect of the ILRs. a) Schematic of the print samples with yellow, red and black (YRK) layers. b) YRK printed transparencies and a silver reflector. c) as (b), but with ILRs between the transparencies. d) Schematic of an LC layer with patterned alignment. The ellipses indicate the alignment of the liquid crystal director.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements of the reflection spectrum of each colored patch in the LC stacks. The solid lines were measured on the device with ILRs and the dashed lines were measured on the device without ILRs. The color insets in each graph are the photos of the corresponding patches, with the left image taken with the ILRs and the right without.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Prototype segmented display photographed in office lighting on top of a monochrome electrophoretic ebook display (iRex Digital Reader 1000).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Prototype segmented display photographed in diffuse window light, taken at (a) 0°, (b) 27° and (c) 48° from the display normal.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Lightness, Contrast and Gamut Volumes for the LC Stacks with and Without ILRs

Equations (1)

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H ( L H ) m 3 L H 4 L

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