Abstract

A four-channel transmitter OSA (TOSA) and a receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) module were presented. They take advantage of a coarse WDM (CWDM) scheme, employing two types of VCSELs at 780 and 850 nm, where no wavelength filters are involved in the TOSA. The ROSA and TOSA were constructed through a fully passive alignment process using components produced by virtue of a cost effective plastic injection molding technique. In order to build a high quality optical HDMI interconnect, four channel optical links between these modules ware established via two graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI-POFs). The HDMI interconnect was thoroughly evaluated in terms of the alignment tolerance, the light beam propagation, and the data transmission capability. For the ROSA, the measured tolerance, as affected by the photodiode alignment, was ~45 μm and over 200 μm for the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. For the TOSA, the tolerance, which is mostly dependent upon the VCSEL alignment, was ~20 μm and more than 200 μm for the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. The beam profiles for the TOSA and ROSA were monitored to confirm their feasibility from the optical coupling perspective. A digital signal at 2.5 Gb/s was efficiently transmitted through the HDMI interconnect with a bit error ratio of below 10−16. A 1080p HDMI signal from a Blu-ray player was delivered through the interconnect to an LCD monitor and successfully displayed a high quality video.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Park, S.-M. Cha, S.-S. Lee, G.-S. Hwang, and Y.-S. Son, “Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4301–4309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

T. Mikawa, “Low-cost high-density optical parallel link modules and optical backplane for the last 1-meter regime applications,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 689902, 689902-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Sialm, D. Lenz, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, C. Kromer, M. X. Jungo, T. Morf, F. Ellinger, and H. Jackel, “Comparison of simulation and measurement of dynamic fiber-coupling effects for high-speed multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(7), 2318–2330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Iga, “Surface emitting laser,” Trans. IEICE JBl C-1(9), 483–493 (1998).

1997 (3)

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Intel J. Optoelectronics 11, 155–168 (1997).

Aoyagi, M.

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.-L.

Cha, S.-M.

Chandrappan, J.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

Chen, W. P.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. S.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeFoster, S. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellinger, F.

Erni, D.

Hashimoto, Y.

Hogan, W. K.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, G.-S.

Iga, K.

K. Iga, “Surface emitting laser,” Trans. IEICE JBl C-1(9), 483–493 (1998).

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imada, A.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

Jackel, H.

Johnson, G. W.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jungo, M. X.

Karst, D. L.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Kromer, C.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, D. L.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-S.

H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Park, S.-M. Cha, S.-S. Lee, G.-S. Hwang, and Y.-S. Son, “Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4301–4309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Park, S.-M. Cha, S.-S. Lee, G.-S. Hwang, and Y.-S. Son, “Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4301–4309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, D.

Lethien, C.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. R.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. C.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loyez, C.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Mikawa, T.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Intel J. Optoelectronics 11, 155–168 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

Nakagawa, H.

Oprysko, M. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouchi, T.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaktas, H. M.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palen, E.

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. S.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-Y.

H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Park, S.-M. Cha, S.-S. Lee, G.-S. Hwang, and Y.-S. Son, “Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4301–4309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, M. D.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramana, P. V.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, N.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, P.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sialm, G.

Son, Y.-S.

H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Park, S.-M. Cha, S.-S. Lee, G.-S. Hwang, and Y.-S. Son, “Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4301–4309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

Suzuki, S.

Suzuki, T.

Tamura, M.

Tan, C. W.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

Trewhella, J. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vilcot, J.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wakazono, Y.

Weirick, J. A.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. G.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J.-Y. Park, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, and C. W. Tan, “Y. Y. chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B (1)

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies.” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Intel J. Optoelectronics (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Intel J. Optoelectronics 11, 155–168 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Polymers (1)

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. Vilcot, N. Rolland, and P. Rolland, “Exploit the bandwidth capacities of the perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber for multi-services distribution,” Polymers 3(3), 1006–1028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. G. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mikawa, “Low-cost high-density optical parallel link modules and optical backplane for the last 1-meter regime applications,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 689902, 689902-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trans. IEICE JBl (1)

K. Iga, “Surface emitting laser,” Trans. IEICE JBl C-1(9), 483–493 (1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed optical HDMI interconnect incorporating the CWDM based ROSA/TOSA modules.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated POF-to-PD coupling efficiency dependent on the PD displacement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Procedure used to build the ROSA/TOSA (b) Precision aligning of the PDs/VCSELs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Completed optical HDMI interconnect (b) Mounting of the PDs/VCSELs (c) POF connection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Captured beam profiles for (a) TOSA module (b) ROSA module.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured POF-to-PD coupling efficiency with the PD alignment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observed electrical eye pattern for the data transmission at 2.5 Gb/s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Demonstration of the Full HD (1080p) video transmission.

Metrics