Abstract

InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors have previously been fabricated with a negative-feedback mechanism, which allows for free-running Geiger-mode operation and improves the signal noise. To reduce the dark count and improve the detection efficiency, zinc diffusion is necessary to define the p-i-n junction and separate the high-field region from any mesa surface. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of a simple Zn-diffused geometry, yielding 1550nm single-photon detection efficiencies of 20% with a dark count rate of 8 kHz at 140 K for a 22μm diameter device.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).
  2. A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).
  3. K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sudo and M. Suzuki, “Surface degradation mechanism of InP/InGaAs APDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1496–1501 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

2000

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Sudo and M. Suzuki, “Surface degradation mechanism of InP/InGaAs APDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1496–1501 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ackley, D. E.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amos, S.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. T.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ash, R. M.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Athroll, I.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. M.

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baynes, N. D.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berzanskis, A.

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

Bi, W. G.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burm, J.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. R.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choo, A. G.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. S.

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farr, W.

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Hasnain, G.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hladky, J.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hollenhorst, J. N.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. D.

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. I.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lange, M. J.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-H.

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. S.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, G. H.

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Song, S.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Su, C.-Y.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Subacius, D.

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

Sudo, H.

H. Sudo and M. Suzuki, “Surface degradation mechanism of InP/InGaAs APDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1496–1501 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

H. Sudo and M. Suzuki, “Surface degradation mechanism of InP/InGaAs APDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1496–1501 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A.

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

Wegmuller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Yang, S. K.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zavriyev, A.

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Zhang, A.

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Zhao, A. Zhang, Y.-H. Lo, and W. Farr, “InGaAs single photon avalanche detector with ultralow excess noise,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, and R. M. Ash, “Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2321–2326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, and J. Burm, “Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 534–536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

H. Sudo and M. Suzuki, “Surface degradation mechanism of InP/InGaAs APDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1496–1501 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and D. E. Ackley, “A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(2), 182–193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

A. Trifonov, D. Subacius, A. Berzanskis, and A. Zavriyev, “Single photon counting at telecom wavelength and quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1399 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

J. Cheng, S. You, K. Zhao, and Y.-H. Lo, “Self-quenched InGaAs single-photon detector,” Proc. SPIE 7320(732010), 732010, 732010-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. D. Kim, J. M. Baek, T. G. Kim, S. G. Kim, and K. S. Chung, “Characterization of double floating guard ring type InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with Au/Zn low resistance ohmic contacts,” Thin Solid Films 514(1–2), 250–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric field contour plots of a simulated reversed bias p-i-n diode, at room temperature, with various diffusion patterns to form the p-region. The simulation is cylindrically symmetric about x = 0. (a) Multiple diffusion ring structure, demonstrating a larger areal fill factor of high field regions. All p-regions are electrically connected to form the anode. (b) Single p-well structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrograph of silicon dioxide mask used for Zn diffusion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Band diagram of the self-quenching SPAD with an electron barrier, at equilibrium. In Geiger-mode, electrons generated by impact ionization in the p-i-n drift towards the cathode (InP substrate) and are temporarily stopped at the InAlAs/InP conduction band barrier, reducing the voltage across the multiplication region and quenching the avalanche pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current-voltage characteristics of a 1.0μm/1.5μm rings device at 160K in dark (solid lines), and 1550nm illumination (dotted lines) conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effects of diffusion geometry and temperature on SPDE: single 10μm diffusion; 1.0μm/1.5μm (width/spacing) rings; 1.0μm/1.0μm rings; 1.5μm/1.5μm rings. The best performance was obtained with the 1.0μm/1.5μm rings structure. All devices with Zn-diffused rings show improved performance compared to the conventional single diffusion device. The frequency refers to the laser pulse rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Estimates of device recovery time. (a) Saturation effects on SPDE due to slow recovery time. The 1.0μm/1.5μm structure was tested at 140K with variable input laser rates, at a bias of 43.2V corresponding to 8kHz DCR. Single-photon detection efficiency is 20% at 100kHz or lower illumination rates. (b) Recovery time dependence on bias voltage, at 180K, from self-triggered dark counts. The breakdown voltage of the device is 42 V.

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