Abstract

Hard x-ray microscopy with nanometer resolution will open frontiers in the study of materials and devices, environmental sciences, and life sciences by utilizing the unique characterization capabilities of x-rays. Here we report two-dimensional nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs), a type of diffractive optics that is in principle capable of focusing x-rays to 1 nm. We demonstrate focusing to a 25 × 27 nm2 FWHM spot with an efficiency of 2% at a photon energy of 12 keV, and to a 25 × 40 nm2 FWHM spot with an efficiency of 17% at a photon energy of 19.5 keV.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, “X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Weckhuysen, “Chemical imaging of spatial heterogeneities in catalytic solids at different length and time scales,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(27), 4910–4943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burghammer, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.-R.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duewer, F. W.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feser, M.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khachatryan, R.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koritala, R.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K. S.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. A.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maaßdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macrander, A.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paunesku, T.

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peele, A. G.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-F.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.-T.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Hart, A.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Kuchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckhuysen, B. M.

B. M. Weckhuysen, “Chemical imaging of spatial heterogeneities in catalytic solids at different length and time scales,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(27), 4910–4943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieczorek, M.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woloschak, G.

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H. F.

H. F. Yan, “X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.-C.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

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[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
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S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(10), 103102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
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H. C. Kang, H. F. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. A. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
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J. Cell. Biochem.

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell. Biochem. 99(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
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Nat. Phys.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
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Nature

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H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
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H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard X rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
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J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, Y. Wenbing, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, L. Chian, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5539, 185–194 (2004).

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 7077, 70770Q–70778 (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic drawing of the wavefronts after one MLL. Only first few orders are shown. (b) The simulated intensity distribution on the common focal plane of a pair of crossed MLLs. The dimensions of the image are 45 x 45 µm2. The point focus is located at the center.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) The measured far field diffraction pattern from a pair of crossed MLLs and b) the corresponding simulation. A cross beamstop blocking the direct beam and two line foci is used in both graphs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Degrees of freedom for motion required for aligning two crossed MLLs for 2D focusing. b) 3D model of the MLL positioner. The top and bottom parts provide the degrees of freedom needed to align two MLLs for 2D focusing. The incident radiation is along the z axis. For clarity, the sample stage is not shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission curve vs. MLL position at two different angles and at (a) 12 keV and (b) 19.5 keV when the lens is fully illuminated for vMLL (top panel) and hMLL (bottom panel).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of Au gratings (a) and its x-ray scanning images (b) and (c). Exposure time per pixel is 1 second, with a maximum count rate in the gold Lβ line of 300 counts/sec. The kink seen in c) is due to the beam dump during the data acquisition. The pixel dimensions in (b) and (c) are 20 × 20 nm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A line scan across an isolated 50-nm line in x (a) and y (b) directions and their fits assuming a square function for the line (dashed). The insets show the fitted focus profiles. The experimental data is an average of 30 repeated scans with the background subtracted.

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